1 CAD to BTC (1 Canadian Dollar to Bitcoin) Exchange ...

[OFFER] I will pay you $15 in bitcoin or ethereum, they will pay you UP TO 100 NRG (CURRENT market value over 600 dollars) must be Us or canadian citizen

You must be a US or Canadian citizen and be able to take a selfie with your ID. You also must be able to complete 2 social media tasks which simply involves following on twitter or facebook. If you use my referral link they will give you an additional 10 coins. And once your signup is verified I will send 15 dollars to a bitcoin or ethereum wallet of your choice.
http://earndrop.energi.world/homepage.php?ref=82319
submitted by MuchWandering to signupsforpay [link] [comments]

Bookmarked these a year ago. I keep them unupdated to remind myself when I thought the price was reaching its max value (prices in Canadian dollars). /r/Bitcoin

Bookmarked these a year ago. I keep them unupdated to remind myself when I thought the price was reaching its max value (prices in Canadian dollars). /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Cultural Exchange between /r/Lebanon and /r/berlin

Welcome to the Cultural Exchange between /Lebanon and /berlin/
Courtesy of our friends over at /berlin/ we are pleased to host our end of the cultural exchange between the two subreddits.
The purpose of this event is to allow people from two different regions to get and share knowledge about their respective cultures, daily life, history and curiosities.

General guidelines


Quick introduction about Lebanon

Quick explanation of what is happening in Lebanon (Before the explosion): https://imgur.com/a/Ixo3v8S
Introduction
Lebanon is a tiny country in the middle east. It's bordered by Syria from the north and east, Israel from the south, and the Mediterranean Sea from the west. Syria has been in a deadly civil war since 2012. Lebanon and Israel are officially "at war" since the inception of Israel, though currently there isn't any war going on, and the last real war between the two countries happened in 2006 and lasted only 30 days.
Lebanon went into a long and deadly civil war in the 70s and 80s. It only ended when the war lords sat together and decided that instead of attempting to kill each other, why not become rulers and split the gains. Thus from the early 90s until today Lebanon has been ruled by the same warlords that fought in the civil war. The speaker of the parliament never changed, not even once, and the rest of MPs and politicians just switched ministries and places every few years to present the image of democracy.
Lebanon also has Hizbollah, an organization that is labeled as a terrorist organization by many countries. Hizbollah has more powerful intillegence and military than the Lebanese government itself. The organization has unobstructed powers, for example, it started the 2006 war with Israel without the acceptance of the official Lebanese government.
Lebanese politicians save their billions and billions of dollars in savings in banks across Europe, mainly Switzerland.
Lebanon doesn't have oil, nor a serious construction sector. Lebanon relies on the service sector and tourism to survive, both of which are almost nonexistent at this point. Lebanon has a huge crippling debt. Lebanon's capital, Beirut, was voted the most expensive city to live in in the middle east two years ago. Lebanon's passport is one of the worst passports in the world and doesn't allow you to visit any notable country without a visa.
October 2019 - Political, COVID-19 and Economical Problems
In October 2019, the government approved a law that would increase taxes, and tax the usage of Whatsapp. The Lebanese population attempted a peaceful revolution, the country effectively closed down from October until December. The revolution was successful in forcing the government to resign, but wasn't able to make the president, MPs or speaker of the parliament resign.
Things went to shit after that, unofficial capital control started in October. The bank declared that people can't withdraw money from their savings or current accounts. People weren't allowed to transfer money outside Lebanon or use any credit or debit card internationally. The government started considering a haircut. The currency started to lose value rapidly.
The official rate is currently 1$ = 1,515 LBP while the black market rate is 1$ = 8,500 LBP
The money stuck in the bank is useless, almost frozen because it can't be withdrawn without losing ~65% of it's value and even then, in small quantities.
Add to that COVID-19 is ripping the country. We're having exponential growth in the number of cases right now.
The Explosion
On August 4, 2020 multiple explosions occurred in Beirut Port that destroyed half the city, killed hundreds, with an additional large number of people missing, injured hundreds of thousands of people and made 300,000 people homeless. 80000 children displaced. The explosion was so big that it was heard and felt in Cyprus and Syria. There were reports of damages to properties from the explosions all over Lebanon, not just in Beirut.
The explosion destroyed half of the city including busy hospitals, which ended up causing people to have to deliver or have critical operations using the flash light from the doctors' cellphones.
The explosion killed several foreign nationals including French, German, Canadian, American, and Australian citizens.
This post is made to raise awareness about what happened in Lebanon by sharing the videos of the incident. Please note that those videos are graphic as they show the moment the explosion happened.
Donation Help
Any kind of monetary donation will go a LONG way during these times.
You can donate using your credit card, paypal account, bank transfer or bitcoin donation.
You can find a list of verified and safe NGOs to donate to here: https://www.reddit.com/lebanon/comments/iaakslist_of_lebanese_ngos_that_are_verified_and_safe/
You can check out some of the videos here:
Reddit Links:
submitted by ThePerito to lebanon [link] [comments]

[WTS] Larger Lot of Gold/Platinum/Silver/Jewelry

Proof: https://imgur.com/a/7xQGIbC
All prices based on spot price of gold @ $1,970/oz , silver @ $24.25/oz, platinum @ $915/oz (7/31/20). Prices good with gold spot below $1990, silver below $25. I am not a coin grader. The condition of any coin listed is how it was listed when I acquired it. I will be more than happy to provide any detailed, unedited photos for any coin. Unless specifically mentioned, assume coins are in generally good condition. Noticeable defects potentially affecting the value will attempt to be noted. I try to price my items substantially below the lowest price I can find online from a national dealer. If you see a legitimate cheaper price, let me know and I may very well adjust my price. FYI, I am in Eastern time zone if I do not respond, may be sleeping.
PLATINUM LISTINGS
Proof: https://imgur.com/a/FcUg9BV

Physical platinum has been hard to come by and premiums have been high. Lucky to have these to list:
1 oz Argor-Heraeus Platinum Bars in assay x 10 9 8 — $990/ea (spot plus $75)


GOLD LISTINGS
Proof: https://imgur.com/a/bGofCRx

2009-W Ultra High Relief Proof St. Gauden 24K in OGP. Quite simply, this may be the coolest coin I have ever seen! — $2,250
1 oz slabbed American Gold Eagle 25th Anniversary Early Release, MS70 NGC (2011) — $2,150 (Note: slab has some scratches on it, the coin is fine)
1924 slabbed $20 St. Gaudens gold double eagle, MS63 PCGS — $2,050
1925 Slabbed $20 St. Gaudens gold double eagle, MS64 PCGS -- $2,275
1911-S Slabbed $20 St. Gaudens gold double eagle, MS63 Blanchard — $2,200
1910 Raw $20 St. Gauden gold double eagle — $2,025
$10 Gold Liberty Head x 2 (1894, 1899) — $1,010/ea
2018-W Slabbed First Strike PCGS MS70 American Gold Eagle — $2,175
Cleaned 1899 $5 Liberty head gold coin — $535
2002 slabbed Salt Lake City Olympics $5 gold commemorative, MS69 PCGS (0.2419 oz) — $485

Proof: https://imgur.com/a/bGofCRx

100gm (10x10) Valcambi Combicard in assay. Individually @ $73/ea x 100. I will risky ship up to 3 of these in an envelope for $1 @ buyer’s risk. It will not be tracked and I do not like doing it. Would prefer $4 bubble mailer, but buyer’s choice.
1 oz gold bars in assay [Valcambi x 2 1, Sunshine Mint, PAMP Religious Romanesque (Note: some peeling of clear cover for PAMP — pictures if desired)] — $2,030
1 oz Credit Suisse gold bar, in plastic but not assay — $2,030
Sterngold, 99.95%, used in making dental alloys, 1gm each x 30. This is a unique item not likely to be found in many collector’s stash. I will risky ship up to 3 of these in an envelope for $1 @ buyer’s risk. It will not be tracked and I do not like doing it. Would prefer $4 bubble mailer, but buyer’s choice— $71/ea

Proof: https://imgur.com/a/wa1mLWZ

1oz American Gold Eagle, BU (1989, Roman numerals) — $2,060
1oz American Gold Eagle (1986, Roman numerals) — $2060
1 oz gold Pandas (1987, 2011) — 1987 sealed, BU — $2,175 ; 2011, uncirculated — $2,250
1 oz Gold Apartheid era South African Krugerrands x 42 (1975 x 2, 1977, 1978, 1979 x 27, 1980, 1981 x 8, 1982, 1984) — $2,040/ea
1 oz Gold American Buffalos (2016 x 1, 2006 x 2) [NOTE: both 2006 have a slight ding on the rim. Sealed in plastic, not ex-jewelry, but slight ding. Photos if desired)] — $2,070 for 2016, $2,065/ea for 2006’s with ding
1 oz Gold Brittania, BU (2020) — $2,065
1 oz unique Canada Golden Eagle, BU (2018). This is .99999 pure (that is five 9’s). Highest purity I am aware of — $2,070
1 oz Gold Austrian Philharmonics, BU (1994 x 1, 1999 x 1) — $2,040/ea
1 oz Gold Canadian Maple Leafs x 8 (1980 x 2, 1981, 2002 with red on “F” of fine gold on reverse, 2002 x 3 with some small scratches, 2011) — $2050/ea
1/4 oz American Gold Eagles x 6 4 (1988 Roman Numeral, 2013, 2014, 2015 x 2, 2020) — $565/ea
1/10oz American Gold Eagles in display (5 coins), BU (2006, 2012) — $1,200/ea
Empty case to display your own set of 5 1/10 oz American Gold Eagles— $10
1/4oz Gold Brittanias, BU (2013 x4) — $600/ea
50 Pesos Mexican Gold x 10 (1947 Restrikes x 8, 1943, 1944) — $2,460/ea for restrikes, $2,470/ea for ’43, ’44
1/2 oz Gold Apartheid era South African Krugerrands x 3 (1980 x 2, 1981) — $1,100/ea
1/10 oz Gold Apartheid era South African Krugerrands x 25 24 23 (various dates 1980-1984, 2011 (not apartheid era) x 1) — $240/ea
1/10 oz American Gold Eagles (various dates x 43, Roman numeral x 11 7) x 54 50 45 — $240/ea for various dates, $260/ea Roman numeral dates

Proof: https://imgur.com/a/KCjdPAy

2006 American Gold Eagle Proof Set (1 oz, 1/2 oz, 1/4 oz, 1/10 oz — 1.85 total troy oz) in OGP — $3,875
1997 Jackie Robinson $5 gold commemorative set. Comes with COA, baseball card, pin, patch, presentation box. There are some dings on the box. Pictures if desired. (0.2419 oz) — $700 (A portion of the proceeds will go toward a reputable social justice charity)
1987 & 1988 UK Gold Sovereign Proof Sets in nice case (each set has a Double Sovereign: 28.4mm, Sovereign: 22.05mm, Half Sovereign: 19.3mm) -- $1,850/each set (NOTE: the 1988 set is missing the COA.)
Austrian Ducat 4 gold coin x 2 (1915 x 2 ), 0.4438 tory oz gold — $895/ea
20 Francs Gold x 20 15 6 (11 10 4 — Roosters, 5 4 2 -- Swiss Francs, 4 1-French Empire), 0.1867 troy oz of gold/ea — $380/ea
Netherlands Gold 10 Guilder x 5, contain 0.1947 troy oz/ea (1926 x 2, 1927, 1932, 1933) — $470/ea
Gold Libertad 1/20 oz (2016) — $200 OBO
Gold Libertad 1/10 oz, BU (2016) — $340 OBO
Gold Libertad 1/10 oz proof (2016) — $350 OBO
Gold Sovereigns x 5 1, contain 7.315g gold/ea (1902, 1911, 1927 x 2 x 1, 1928) — $475/ea
1/4 oz Gold Canadian Maple (2005) — $565

Proof: https://imgur.com/a/VXzaDUN
Late Addition:
5 3 additional 1976 1 oz Krugerrands — $2,040/ea
6 additional Pandas: Don’t ask me why the premiums on Pandas are so high. They just are. I tried to price about $20+ dollars below the cheapest I could find them online at large dealers. If you find a legitimate lower price, let me know and I may very well adjust the price. 1985 — $2,150, 1987 — $2,120, 1988 — $2,095, 1990 — $2,150, 1991 — $2,150, 2002 — $2,200, 2011 — $2,240
26 25 1/10 oz Australian Battle of the Coral Sea Battle in the Pacific, in capsules — $225/ea
14 additional Netherlands gold 10 guilders — $470/ea


LOW PREMIUM LISTINGS
Proof: https://imgur.com/a/jlE0Xuu
All the time I see posts looking for precious metals “at or near spot.” Well here is your chance. If you don’t purchase these, then you are not really looking for gold at or near spot, you are looking for premium items without the premium. Those deals may be out there, but they are few and far between, with lines of buyers looking to snap them up, including myself. Items here will generally be available for spot + <2%. To get a physical form of a precious metal refined, assayed, and produced into an identifiable and verifiable form/weight/purity for a tad above spot is pretty darn good, regardless of the collectability of the item. I see people paying more premium for scrap gold than some of these.

1976 Canadian Montreal Olympic $100 commemorative (one in OGP (signs of wear), one loose with OGP in worn state but coin is fine, 0.25 oz each). You are not purchasing these for the packaging. — $500/ea
American Arts Gold Medallion Grant Wood, 1 troy oz — $2,005
2010 US Mint First Spouse Series Gold Uncirculated Mary Todd Lincoln 1/2 troy oz in OGP, NOTE: red spot on obverse (See Photo) — $1,005
Cleaned, ex-jewelry $5 Liberty head gold coin (1900, 1906 ), Note: some rim damage, will send photos if desired — $485/ea


JEWELRY LISTINGS
Proof: https://imgur.com/a/QEVcW0F

CRESCENT sterling silver pocket watch case, twist on bezel. Marked with CRESCENT, Sterling, serial number 4188. Amateur engraving with a marked name and 1919. Weighs over 100 grams!!! Pre-owned, with expected signs of tarnish and wear. A ding on back of case (see photo close up) — $75
1913 $5 Indian Head gold coin in 14K bezel, bezel weighs 1.30g — $575
2014 1/10 oz American Gold Eagle in 14K eagle pendant, bezel weighs 3.487g — $400


SILVER LISTINGS

Proof: https://imgur.com/a/MTK1BfP

Proof: https://imgur.com/a/54maJxn
25 Slabbed and Graded American Silver Eagles — Whole lot for $1,000 OBO. May make offers on individual rounds. (SOLD '92. '93, '14W)
For reference, on 8/15, APMEX wholesale site is asking $100/ea for the ‘94’s. Offering to buy ‘14-S for $50 and the NGC MS70 for $120.
—ALL NGC MS69 — 1992, 1993, 1994 x 3, 2000, 2001 x 2, 2002, 2003, 2006, 2007 —ALL NGC MS69 — 2007 Early Release x 7 —NGC MS69 — 2014(W) —NGC MS69 — 2013 First Release —PCGS MS69 — 2008 First Strike —PCGS MS69 — 2014(S) First Strike —PCGS MS69 — 2003 —NGC MS70 — 2003 
100 oz silver bars (Engelhard x 1, Ohio Precious Metals —don’t believe they will be making either of these anymore) — $2,775 /ea
20 oz Scottsdale kit kat bars (2) — $555/ea (1 left)
10 oz Queen's Beasts Series Falcons x 4 — $400/ea
2 oz Queen's Beasts Series -- tubes of Falcons x 4 ($800/ea), Yales x 4 ($580/ea)
1 oz Sunshine Minting Silver Bars x 237 199 — $28.50/ea
1 roll 2006 90% San Francisco Mint Proof Colorado State Washington Quarters — $210 (NOTE: it looks like there might be some small surface scratches on some of the coins. Therefore, they are being priced as just uncirculated.)
Men in Space Series I First Edition, .925 commemorative medals x 2 sets. These are not just sterling silver medals but history depicting the major events in the early years of NASA. https://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/danbury-mint-men-space-series-first-411707135 One set in original presentation packaging just like the link. One set loose with a few extra medals (2 additional medals from the 1969 Men in Space series II — 2nd Moon Landing, 1st Space Rescue; one duplicate medal from series I, and one additional First Manned Landing on the Moon Apollo 11 (slightly larger, from unknown series to me)). Sold in lots only. Lot with packaging (21 medals, 0.7 oz each) — $360. Loose lot (25 medals, 0.7 oz each plus 1 slightly larger Appollo 11 as above) — $375

Proof: https://imgur.com/gallery/hRX6XlB
Mexican Silver Lot -- Sold in lots of (10) @ $175/lot. YOU MAY MIX/MATCH
—1952-53 Mexican 5 Pesos Hidalgo, 72% silver, 0.643 troy oz silvecoin (x10)
—1977-79 Mexican 100 Pesos, 72% silver, 0.643 troy oz silvecoin (x10)
—1968— Mexican Olympic 25 Pesos, 72% silver, 0.521 troy oz silvecoin (x20)

1973 Mundinero World Trade rounds x 2 tubes — $600/ea
1973 Mundinero World Trade Rounds with 14 of the 20 being High Relief — $640
Generic Rounds (mostly buffalos, I believe ) x 10 tubes — $560/tube
Few loose generic rounds x 6 — $28/ea
2 Painted American Silver Eagles — $30/ea
’84-’85 Engelhard Prospector Rounds x 2 tubes — One tube of (20) — $660; One tube of (17) — $560
Canadian Maple Tubes of 25 x 3 (2012 x 2, 2008 x 1, NOTE: 2008 rounds have some milk spots) — $725/tube

Proof: https://imgur.com/a/XnRiLPW
Lot of 17 premium rounds: Philharmonics x4, Brittanias x 5, 2018 Republic Of Chad African Lion x 2, Krugerrands x 3, Australian Kangaroo x 1, Super Pit Australia x 2 — $488. Sold only as a lot.
Lot of fractional silver rounds, 1.35 ASW — 1/4 oz indian head, 1/4 oz walking liberty, 1/4 oz buffalo nickel, 1/10 oz indian head x 3, buffalo x 1, Morgan x 1 — $44. Sold only as a lot.

LOW PREMIUM LISTINGS
Proof: https://imgur.com/a/R9NuZj8
All the time I see posts looking for precious metals “at or near spot.” Well here is your chance. If you don’t purchase these, then you are not really looking for silver at or near spot, you are looking for premium items without the premium. Those deals may be out there, but they are few and far between, with lines of buyers looking to snap them up, including myself. Items here will generally be available for spot + <2%. To get a physical form of a precious metal refined, assayed, and produced into an identifiable and verifiable form/weight/purity for a tad above spot is pretty darn good, regardless of the collectability of the item. I see people paying more premium for scrap than some of these.

Silver war nickels @ $1.36/ea (BELOW SPOT), 8,500+ available, minimum quantity of 100

Large lot of Canadian — further info on request. Prefer to sell this in larger lots grouped together, not piecing it out or small lots. Take the whole lot for $3,000, or:
—$1.75fv, .925 — $33 —$20.25fv, ’67-’68, 50% (mostly all quarters) — $185 —$164.35fv, pre ’67, 80% (includes 65 $1) — $2,400 —1976 Montreal Olympic .925 $10 commemoratives x 9, 1.4454 troy oz/ea — $40/ea —1972 .925 $25 Cayman Island Silver Anniversary x 1, 1.5271 troy oz — $42.50 

TERMS: All eligible items are verified with a sigma precious metal verifier or Kee gold tester. Prices are generally based on the underlying spot price. Large fluctuations in spot prices could affect the price of items listed. Shipping will generally be at cost. USPS first class starts @ $4, SFRB @ $8.50, signature @ $2.50. Will insure for 1.1% of purchase price. Shipping is at buyer’s risk. All items will be tracked, but I cannot be responsible for what happens on your porch. Would recommend delivery to a secure box for precious metals. Accept in order of preference: 1st — Zelle or Venmo; 2nd — PPFF (no comments), PPG&S @ +3.0%; Last resort: I have recently acquired the ability to accept Bitcoin, but am still learning. Be patient and fees will be at buyer’s expense, but I will try to work with you if other options do not suffice. Other forms of payment will be considered. Thank you!
submitted by AgAuSeller to Pmsforsale [link] [comments]

[WTS] $15.5FV - 90% Kennedy’s, 1882 - 20 Lire 0.1867, 800 Silver Spoon, 10k,14k,18k 925 Jewelry - Necklaces, Chains, Mexican, Thailand, Bracelets, Bangles, Pendants, Rings, 10K Herringbone, 10k MEX Joseph Bracelet @ SPOT

Proof: https://imgur.com/a/o6IbJ0z
$15.50 FV - 1964 Kennedy Half Dollars - 90% Silver - $20/Per $1 Face 1 face = 2 coins, $12FV Available
8 - 1882 - 20 Lire Italian Gold - 0.1867 AGW - $375/Each 5 sold, 3 available - Melt Value = $364
2 - 2013 1 oz Canadian Silver Wood Bison Coin - $31 Each 1 available
10K Mexico Jospeh Bracelet - 7” Inches Long - 10.23 grams @ SPOT!! - $266 @ spot
14K Earrings - 1.41 Grams @ SPOT!! - $51.45 @ spot
10K Herringbone Chain - 20” Inches Long - 4mm Wide - 5.85 Grams - Melt is $153, price Is $160
Black Hills 925 Sterling Silver Bracelet With 12K Gold Leafs, 8” inches long, 20.28 grams - $120
18K Leaf Brooch - 10.76 grams @ SPOT - $507 @ spot
14K ArtCarved White Gold Ring, Size 8.5, 6 grams - $300
14K Gold Ring, Size 7.5, 5.26 grams - $240
RGVS 14K Slider Bracelet, 31.34 grams - $1625 or best offer
14K Opal/Diamond Pendant, 8.61 grams - $1,600 On Consignment Ask Me About It If Intrested
10K Opal Ring - 5 Carat Opal - Size 6.5 - 8.66 grams - $650
14k Gold Bracelet 11.5 grams, 31 diamonds - $600
10K Opal Ring, Size 6.75 - $295
10K Australian Opal Ring - Size 6.75 - 3.02 Grams - $225
14K Blue Stone/Diamond Pendant, 4.66 grams - $245
14K Oval Jadeite Cabochon Greek Key Ring, HONG KONG, SIZE 10 - $295
14K Beautiful Yellow/Orange/Green/White/Black Stone Pendant - 13.71 grams - $475
10K Brown Stone Ring, Size 7.25 - $220
10K Red Stone Ring, Size 6.25 - $115
10K Light Blue/Green Rock Diamond Ring - Size 6.5 - 2.14 Grams - $95
14k Light Purple Pendant - 0.42 grams - $30
Buy All Scrap Gold and I’ll cover the shipping - 13.23 grams of 14k and 2.03 grams of 10k - ALL 10% Below MELT
14K Gold Scrap/Refine Lot - 6.35 Grams - 10% Below Spot - $208.54
14K Ring - 10% below spot - gold scrap/refine - 2.27 grams - $74.53
14k - Gold Scrap/Refine Lot - 2.45 grams - 10% below spot - $77.15
14k gold lot - 2.16 grams - 10% below melt - $70.92
10K Scrap/Refine - 2.03 grams - 10% Below Melt - $47.61 If interested in more scrap I have more available, just ask**
14K Diamond Ring, Size 7, 8.29 grams @ SPOT - $302 @ spot
14K White/Clear RingRock Size 4.5, 3.42 Grams @ SPOT. - $125 @ spot
14k Opal Ring, Size 6.75, 3.63 Grams @ SPOT - $132 @ spot
10K Red Stone Ring, Size 7.25, 5.55 grams @ SPOT - $144.84 @ spot
14K White/Clear Rock Ring, 1.78 grams, size 7.5 @ SPOT - $65 @ spot
14K White/Clear Rock Ring, Size 7.25, 4.43 grams @ SPOT - $161 @ spot
10K Green Rock Ring, Size 8.25, 4.93 grams @ SPOT - $129 @ spot
10K Pink Rock Ring, Size 6.75, 4.91 grams @ SPOT - $128 @ spot
Austrian 800 Silver Spoon - 12.07 grams - 80% Silver @ SPOT!! - $8.43
925 Italy Sterling Silver Bracelet - 7” Inches Long - $14
925 Italy Sterling Silver Bracelet- 8” Inches Long - $14
925 Italy Sterling Silver Bracelet- 7” Inches Long - 7.36 Grams - $15
925 Italy Sterling Silver Gold Plated Bracelet- 8” Inches Long - 15.07 Grams - $26
925 Sterling Silver Beaded Bracelet - 8”Inches Long - $30
2 - 925 Mexico Taxco Sterling Silver Bracelet/Bangle - 2.5” Inch Diameter - $40/Each
925 Mexico TC-177 Bracelet Sterling Silver - Diameter 2-3” Inches Adjustable - 20.86 grams - $40
925 Los Ballesteros Sterling Panel Bracelet - 42.87g - $50
Siam Sterling Silver Bangle Bracelet Etched Design Pattern - $55
925 Sterling Silver SU Thailand Adjustable Cuff Cable Bracelet - 3” Inch Adjustable Diameter - 24.87 grams - $65
925 Thai Sterling Silver Necklace with Black Gemstone Dress Pendant - 18.5” Inches Long - $15
925 Sterling Silver Necklace with Blue Stone Pendant - 17” Inches Long - $25
925 Sterling Silver Necklace With Pearl Pendant - 16” Inches Long - 22.42 grams - $40
925 Green Rock Ring, Size 8.75 - **$15
925 Sterling Silver Ring With White/Blue Stone Size 6.5 - **$10
925 Sterling Silver Green Rock Moveable Ring - Size 6-6.25 - 7.41 grams - $20
925 Sterling Silver Ring - Size 7 - 13.62 grams - $20
925 Sterling Silver Ruby? Ring - Size 7 - 2.69 Grams - $50
925 Liquid Silver 30 Strand Necklace With 10 Strand Earrings - $60
925 Wells Sterling Silver Leaf Brooch - $8
925 Sterling Silver Leaf/Green Stone Brooch - 7.46g - $14
925 Sterling Silver Belt Buckle Blue/White/Red/Dark Blue - 24.87 Grams @ SPOT - $20.08
925 Sterling Silver Rose Pendant - $5
925 Thailand Sterling Silver Heart Pendant - $5
Aspire 925 Sterling Silver - My Family Tree Pendant - $7
925 Mexico MM-34 Sterling Silver Heart Pendant - $15
Bell Trading Post Abalone 925 Sterling Silver Vintage Pendant 1936-1969 - $15
ATI Mexico 925 Sterling Silver Black Onyx Pendant - 22.18g - $30
Payment
I accept PayPal Friends and Family, Zelle, Venmo, Cash App, Zelle, Google pay
Bitcoin and other crypto currencies now accepted
Shipping
0-4 oz - $4 5-8 oz - $4.25 9-12 oz - $6 Priority shipping =$8, Stamped envelope - $1, medium flat rate box = $15
•Signature Confirmation $3 (Optional)
•Insurance is also available at buyers expense.
•I pack safely and discretely.
•Prices are subject to change at any moments notice.
•Message me if you have any questions.
•All packages will be dropped off on Friday or Saturday.
•Once I drop the package at the post office I’m not responsible for USPS mistakes or losses
submitted by Redditaccount1543354 to Pmsforsale [link] [comments]

Bob The Magic Custodian



Summary: Everyone knows that when you give your assets to someone else, they always keep them safe. If this is true for individuals, it is certainly true for businesses.
Custodians always tell the truth and manage funds properly. They won't have any interest in taking the assets as an exchange operator would. Auditors tell the truth and can't be misled. That's because organizations that are regulated are incapable of lying and don't make mistakes.

First, some background. Here is a summary of how custodians make us more secure:

Previously, we might give Alice our crypto assets to hold. There were risks:

But "no worries", Alice has a custodian named Bob. Bob is dressed in a nice suit. He knows some politicians. And he drives a Porsche. "So you have nothing to worry about!". And look at all the benefits we get:
See - all problems are solved! All we have to worry about now is:
It's pretty simple. Before we had to trust Alice. Now we only have to trust Alice, Bob, and all the ways in which they communicate. Just think of how much more secure we are!

"On top of that", Bob assures us, "we're using a special wallet structure". Bob shows Alice a diagram. "We've broken the balance up and store it in lots of smaller wallets. That way", he assures her, "a thief can't take it all at once". And he points to a historic case where a large sum was taken "because it was stored in a single wallet... how stupid".
"Very early on, we used to have all the crypto in one wallet", he said, "and then one Christmas a hacker came and took it all. We call him the Grinch. Now we individually wrap each crypto and stick it under a binary search tree. The Grinch has never been back since."

"As well", Bob continues, "even if someone were to get in, we've got insurance. It covers all thefts and even coercion, collusion, and misplaced keys - only subject to the policy terms and conditions." And with that, he pulls out a phone-book sized contract and slams it on the desk with a thud. "Yep", he continues, "we're paying top dollar for one of the best policies in the country!"
"Can I read it?' Alice asks. "Sure," Bob says, "just as soon as our legal team is done with it. They're almost through the first chapter." He pauses, then continues. "And can you believe that sales guy Mike? He has the same year Porsche as me. I mean, what are the odds?"

"Do you use multi-sig?", Alice asks. "Absolutely!" Bob replies. "All our engineers are fully trained in multi-sig. Whenever we want to set up a new wallet, we generate 2 separate keys in an air-gapped process and store them in this proprietary system here. Look, it even requires the biometric signature from one of our team members to initiate any withdrawal." He demonstrates by pressing his thumb into the display. "We use a third-party cloud validation API to match the thumbprint and authorize each withdrawal. The keys are also backed up daily to an off-site third-party."
"Wow that's really impressive," Alice says, "but what if we need access for a withdrawal outside of office hours?" "Well that's no issue", Bob says, "just send us an email, call, or text message and we always have someone on staff to help out. Just another part of our strong commitment to all our customers!"

"What about Proof of Reserve?", Alice asks. "Of course", Bob replies, "though rather than publish any blockchain addresses or signed transaction, for privacy we just do a SHA256 refactoring of the inverse hash modulus for each UTXO nonce and combine the smart contract coefficient consensus in our hyperledger lightning node. But it's really simple to use." He pushes a button and a large green checkmark appears on a screen. "See - the algorithm ran through and reserves are proven."
"Wow", Alice says, "you really know your stuff! And that is easy to use! What about fiat balances?" "Yeah, we have an auditor too", Bob replies, "Been using him for a long time so we have quite a strong relationship going! We have special books we give him every year and he's very efficient! Checks the fiat, crypto, and everything all at once!"

"We used to have a nice offline multi-sig setup we've been using without issue for the past 5 years, but I think we'll move all our funds over to your facility," Alice says. "Awesome", Bob replies, "Thanks so much! This is perfect timing too - my Porsche got a dent on it this morning. We have the paperwork right over here." "Great!", Alice replies.
And with that, Alice gets out her pen and Bob gets the contract. "Don't worry", he says, "you can take your crypto-assets back anytime you like - just subject to our cancellation policy. Our annual management fees are also super low and we don't adjust them often".

How many holes have to exist for your funds to get stolen?
Just one.

Why are we taking a powerful offline multi-sig setup, widely used globally in hundreds of different/lacking regulatory environments with 0 breaches to date, and circumventing it by a demonstrably weak third party layer? And paying a great expense to do so?
If you go through the list of breaches in the past 2 years to highly credible organizations, you go through the list of major corporate frauds (only the ones we know about), you go through the list of all the times platforms have lost funds, you go through the list of times and ways that people have lost their crypto from identity theft, hot wallet exploits, extortion, etc... and then you go through this custodian with a fine-tooth comb and truly believe they have value to add far beyond what you could, sticking your funds in a wallet (or set of wallets) they control exclusively is the absolute worst possible way to take advantage of that security.

The best way to add security for crypto-assets is to make a stronger multi-sig. With one custodian, what you are doing is giving them your cryptocurrency and hoping they're honest, competent, and flawlessly secure. It's no different than storing it on a really secure exchange. Maybe the insurance will cover you. Didn't work for Bitpay in 2015. Didn't work for Yapizon in 2017. Insurance has never paid a claim in the entire history of cryptocurrency. But maybe you'll get lucky. Maybe your exact scenario will buck the trend and be what they're willing to cover. After the large deductible and hopefully without a long and expensive court battle.

And you want to advertise this increase in risk, the lapse of judgement, an accident waiting to happen, as though it's some kind of benefit to customers ("Free institutional-grade storage for your digital assets.")? And then some people are writing to the OSC that custodians should be mandatory for all funds on every exchange platform? That this somehow will make Canadians as a whole more secure or better protected compared with standard air-gapped multi-sig? On what planet?

Most of the problems in Canada stemmed from one thing - a lack of transparency. If Canadians had known what a joke Quadriga was - it wouldn't have grown to lose $400m from hard-working Canadians from coast to coast to coast. And Gerald Cotten would be in jail, not wherever he is now (at best, rotting peacefully). EZ-BTC and mister Dave Smilie would have been a tiny little scam to his friends, not a multi-million dollar fraud. Einstein would have got their act together or been shut down BEFORE losing millions and millions more in people's funds generously donated to criminals. MapleChange wouldn't have even been a thing. And maybe we'd know a little more about CoinTradeNewNote - like how much was lost in there. Almost all of the major losses with cryptocurrency exchanges involve deception with unbacked funds.
So it's great to see transparency reports from BitBuy and ShakePay where someone independently verified the backing. The only thing we don't have is:
It's not complicated to validate cryptocurrency assets. They need to exist, they need to be spendable, and they need to cover the total balances. There are plenty of credible people and firms across the country that have the capacity to reasonably perform this validation. Having more frequent checks by different, independent, parties who publish transparent reports is far more valuable than an annual check by a single "more credible/official" party who does the exact same basic checks and may or may not publish anything. Here's an example set of requirements that could be mandated:
There are ways to structure audits such that neither crypto assets nor customer information are ever put at risk, and both can still be properly validated and publicly verifiable. There are also ways to structure audits such that they are completely reasonable for small platforms and don't inhibit innovation in any way. By making the process as reasonable as possible, we can completely eliminate any reason/excuse that an honest platform would have for not being audited. That is arguable far more important than any incremental improvement we might get from mandating "the best of the best" accountants. Right now we have nothing mandated and tons of Canadians using offshore exchanges with no oversight whatsoever.

Transparency does not prove crypto assets are safe. CoinTradeNewNote, Flexcoin ($600k), and Canadian Bitcoins ($100k) are examples where crypto-assets were breached from platforms in Canada. All of them were online wallets and used no multi-sig as far as any records show. This is consistent with what we see globally - air-gapped multi-sig wallets have an impeccable record, while other schemes tend to suffer breach after breach. We don't actually know how much CoinTrader lost because there was no visibility. Rather than publishing details of what happened, the co-founder of CoinTrader silently moved on to found another platform - the "most trusted way to buy and sell crypto" - a site that has no information whatsoever (that I could find) on the storage practices and a FAQ advising that “[t]rading cryptocurrency is completely safe” and that having your own wallet is “entirely up to you! You can certainly keep cryptocurrency, or fiat, or both, on the app.” Doesn't sound like much was learned here, which is really sad to see.
It's not that complicated or unreasonable to set up a proper hardware wallet. Multi-sig can be learned in a single course. Something the equivalent complexity of a driver's license test could prevent all the cold storage exploits we've seen to date - even globally. Platform operators have a key advantage in detecting and preventing fraud - they know their customers far better than any custodian ever would. The best job that custodians can do is to find high integrity individuals and train them to form even better wallet signatories. Rather than mandating that all platforms expose themselves to arbitrary third party risks, regulations should center around ensuring that all signatories are background-checked, properly trained, and using proper procedures. We also need to make sure that signatories are empowered with rights and responsibilities to reject and report fraud. They need to know that they can safely challenge and delay a transaction - even if it turns out they made a mistake. We need to have an environment where mistakes are brought to the surface and dealt with. Not one where firms and people feel the need to hide what happened. In addition to a knowledge-based test, an auditor can privately interview each signatory to make sure they're not in coercive situations, and we should make sure they can freely and anonymously report any issues without threat of retaliation.
A proper multi-sig has each signature held by a separate person and is governed by policies and mutual decisions instead of a hierarchy. It includes at least one redundant signature. For best results, 3of4, 3of5, 3of6, 4of5, 4of6, 4of7, 5of6, or 5of7.

History has demonstrated over and over again the risk of hot wallets even to highly credible organizations. Nonetheless, many platforms have hot wallets for convenience. While such losses are generally compensated by platforms without issue (for example Poloniex, Bitstamp, Bitfinex, Gatecoin, Coincheck, Bithumb, Zaif, CoinBene, Binance, Bitrue, Bitpoint, Upbit, VinDAX, and now KuCoin), the public tends to focus more on cases that didn't end well. Regardless of what systems are employed, there is always some level of risk. For that reason, most members of the public would prefer to see third party insurance.
Rather than trying to convince third party profit-seekers to provide comprehensive insurance and then relying on an expensive and slow legal system to enforce against whatever legal loopholes they manage to find each and every time something goes wrong, insurance could be run through multiple exchange operators and regulators, with the shared interest of having a reputable industry, keeping costs down, and taking care of Canadians. For example, a 4 of 7 multi-sig insurance fund held between 5 independent exchange operators and 2 regulatory bodies. All Canadian exchanges could pay premiums at a set rate based on their needed coverage, with a higher price paid for hot wallet coverage (anything not an air-gapped multi-sig cold wallet). Such a model would be much cheaper to manage, offer better coverage, and be much more reliable to payout when needed. The kind of coverage you could have under this model is unheard of. You could even create something like the CDIC to protect Canadians who get their trading accounts hacked if they can sufficiently prove the loss is legitimate. In cases of fraud, gross negligence, or insolvency, the fund can be used to pay affected users directly (utilizing the last transparent balance report in the worst case), something which private insurance would never touch. While it's recommended to have official policies for coverage, a model where members vote would fully cover edge cases. (Could be similar to the Supreme Court where justices vote based on case law.)
Such a model could fully protect all Canadians across all platforms. You can have a fiat coverage governed by legal agreements, and crypto-asset coverage governed by both multi-sig and legal agreements. It could be practical, affordable, and inclusive.

Now, we are at a crossroads. We can happily give up our freedom, our innovation, and our money. We can pay hefty expenses to auditors, lawyers, and regulators year after year (and make no mistake - this cost will grow to many millions or even billions as the industry grows - and it will be borne by all Canadians on every platform because platforms are not going to eat up these costs at a loss). We can make it nearly impossible for any new platform to enter the marketplace, forcing Canadians to use the same stagnant platforms year after year. We can centralize and consolidate the entire industry into 2 or 3 big players and have everyone else fail (possibly to heavy losses of users of those platforms). And when a flawed security model doesn't work and gets breached, we can make it even more complicated with even more people in suits making big money doing the job that blockchain was supposed to do in the first place. We can build a system which is so intertwined and dependent on big government, traditional finance, and central bankers that it's future depends entirely on that of the fiat system, of fractional banking, and of government bail-outs. If we choose this path, as history has shown us over and over again, we can not go back, save for revolution. Our children and grandchildren will still be paying the consequences of what we decided today.
Or, we can find solutions that work. We can maintain an open and innovative environment while making the adjustments we need to make to fully protect Canadian investors and cryptocurrency users, giving easy and affordable access to cryptocurrency for all Canadians on the platform of their choice, and creating an environment in which entrepreneurs and problem solvers can bring those solutions forward easily. None of the above precludes innovation in any way, or adds any unreasonable cost - and these three policies would demonstrably eliminate or resolve all 109 historic cases as studied here - that's every single case researched so far going back to 2011. It includes every loss that was studied so far not just in Canada but globally as well.
Unfortunately, finding answers is the least challenging part. Far more challenging is to get platform operators and regulators to agree on anything. My last post got no response whatsoever, and while the OSC has told me they're happy for industry feedback, I believe my opinion alone is fairly meaningless. This takes the whole community working together to solve. So please let me know your thoughts. Please take the time to upvote and share this with people. Please - let's get this solved and not leave it up to other people to do.

Facts/background/sources (skip if you like):



Thoughts?
submitted by azoundria2 to QuadrigaInitiative [link] [comments]

[WTS] Flash Sale: Lots of Gold & Silver

UPDATED! SEE BELOW

Reference: Gold spot: $2,032, Silver Spot: $28.32 (8/7/20)

It is a little disappointing to put together a large post only to have spot prices shoot up and make your prices obsolete. But I suppose there are bigger problems than making your product more valuable. With the 48 hour rule between posts, I will try to list a few small lots for sale and then may update this as things sell off.

Tonight is international night.

GOLD LISTINGS
Gold proof: https://imgur.com/a/ATlg8n1

(21) Netherlands Gold 10 Guilders. These are a great looking world coins and a good small fractional size. Contain 0.1947 troy oz/ea — Melts about $400. $410/ea (20 left)

(2) Austrian Ducat 4 gold coin (1915), 0.4438 troy oz gold/ea — Melts over $900. $915/ea

(14 6) 20 Franc (9 4 roosters, 2 Swiss, 1 French Empire (Napolean III, I believe) -- 0.1867 troy oz of gold/ea — Melts about $380. $390/ea

(1) Gold Sovereign, contains 7.315g gold/ea (1902) — Another good looking, classic small fractional world coin. Melts about $480. $490

SILVER LISTINGS
Silver Proof1: https://imgur.com/a/fnSrKlr
Lot of World Silver. World silver has been very hot. Disclaimer: I do not know much about world silver. I am going to describe the base case. If there is anything more of value in here, then good for the buyer. Selling 100+ world silver coins: approx. 9.20 ozt ASW per catalog. Nations represented: Netherlands (incl. overseas territories), Great Britain, Philippines, Sweden, etc. Some coins are low grade (slicks from 1700's and 1800's like a Capped Bust dime and a few holed pieces. Tried to group all holed pieces together in the photo) but several really nice coins too (sharp Australian 6p, etc). Most are avg circulation. Melts about $260.50. $270
(1918) Queen’s Beasts Series 2 oz Falcons. I went to do comps on these and cheapest I can find them is findbullionprices @ $132/ea. Honestly, I don't understand it. Would appreciate any input as to why the outrageous premium. I will let these go individually for $100. If you can provide me with a legitimate national source for these at a lower rate, I may very well change the price. $100/ea

Silver Proof2: https://imgur.com/a/NXw6qp4
Lot of fractional silver rounds, 1.35 ASW (1/4 oz indian head, 1/4 oz walking liberty, 1/4 oz buffalo nickel, 1/10 oz indian head x 3, buffalo, Morgan). Sold only as a lot. $55

Silver Proof3: https://imgur.com/a/y5CHEF4
Large lot of Canadian — further info on request. Prefer to sell this in larger lots grouped together, not piecing it out or small lots. Whole lot melts about $2,250 by my count. Take the whole lot for $2,285, or:
—$1.75fv, .925 — $35 —$20.25fv, ’67-’68, 50% (all quarters, one dollar) — $133 —$164.35fv, pre ’67, 80% (includes 65 $1) — $1,700 —1976 Montreal Olympic .925 $10 commemoratives x 9, 1.4454 troy oz/ea — $42.50/ea —1972 .925 $25 Cayman Island Silver Anniversary x 1, 1.5271 troy oz — $45 

UPDATE
Update proof: https://imgur.com/a/qXbeAkE
A herd of buffalo and a convocation of eagles
5 — 2006, 2007 American Gold Buffalo Proof in OGP, $2180/ea
16 -- various date + Roman Numeral 1/2 oz American Gold Eagles, $1,085/ea various dates, $1,090 Roman numeral
3 — ‘98, ‘99, ‘ 00 1 oz American Gold Eagles, $2,130ea

https://imgur.com/a/JHJyC1d

1oz American Arts Medal, $2,040!! I’ll throw in the copper for free!


TERMS: All eligible items are verified with a sigma precious metal verifier or Kee gold tester. Prices are generally based on the underlying spot price. Large fluctuations in spot prices could affect the price of items listed. Shipping will generally be at cost. USPS first class starts @ $4, SFRB @ $8.50, signature @ $2.50. Will insure for 1.1% of purchase price. Shipping is at buyer’s risk. All items will be tracked, but I cannot be responsible for what happens on your porch. Would recommend delivery to a secure box for precious metals. Accept in order of preference: 1st — Zelle or Venmo; 2nd — PPFF (no comments), PPG&S @ +3.0%; Last resort: I have recently acquired the ability to accept Bitcoin, but am still learning. Be patient and fees will be at buyer’s expense, but I will try to work with you if other options do not suffice. Other forms of payment will be considered. Thank you!
submitted by AgAuSeller to Pmsforsale [link] [comments]

Update and Few Thoughts, a (Well-Typed) transcript: Liza&Charles the marketeers, Voltaire kick-off, PrisM and Ebb-and-Flow to fuck ETH2.0 Gasper, the (back)log of a man and a falcon, lots of companies, September Goguen time, Basho, 2021 Titans, Basho, Hydra and much more thoughts and prayers

Hi everybody this is Charles Hoskinson broadcasting live from warm sunny Colorado. I'm trying a new streaming service and it allows me to annotate a few things and simulcast to both periscope and youtube. Let's see how this works. I also get to put a little caption. I think for the future, I'm just for a while going to put: "I will never give away ada". So, when people repost my videos for giveaway scams they at least have that. First off, a thank you, a community member named Daryl had decided to carve a log and give his artistic impression of my twitter profile picture of me and the falcon so that always means a lot when I get these gifts from fans and also I just wanted to, on the back of the Catalyst presentation, express my profound gratitude and excitement to the community.
You know it's really really cool to see how much progress has been made in such a short period of time. It was only yesterday when we were saying "when Shelley"? Now Shelley's out and it's evolving rapidly. Voltaire is now starting to evolve rapidly and we're real close to Goguen. At the end of this month we'll be able to talk around some of the realities of Goguen and some of the ideas we have and give some dates for certain things and give you a sense of where that project is at. The good news is that we have gained an enormous amount of progress and knowledge about what we need to do and how to get that done and basically people are just executing and it's a much smaller task than getting us to Shelley. With Byron to Shelley we literally had to build a completely new cryptocurrency from the ground up. We had to have new ledger rules, new update system, we had to invent a way of transitioning from one system to another system and there's hundreds of other little innovations along the way: new network stack and so forth. Byron cosmetically looks like Shelley but under the hood it's completely different and the Shelley design was built with a lot of the things that we needed for Goguen in mind. For example, we built Shelley with the idea of extended UTXO and we built Shelley understanding what the realities were for the smart contract model and that's one of the advantages you get when you do this type of bespoke engineering. There's two consequences to that, one, the integration is significantly easier, and two, the integration is significantly faster. We won't look at that same complexity there.
The product update at the end of the month... We'll really start discussing around some of these things as well as talk about partners and talk about how the development ecosystem is going to evolve. There are a lot of threads throughout all three organizations that are happening simultaneously. Emurgo, they're really thinking deeply about DeFi and they've invited us to collaborate with them on things like stablecoins for example but we're also looking at oracles (oracle pools), DEX and these other things and because there are already people in market who have made mistakes, learned lessons, it gives us the benefit of hindsight. It means we can be much faster to market and we can build much more competitive things in market and the Cardano community gets first access to these next generation DeFi applications without a lot of the problems of the prior generations and that's super beneficial to us.
You know, the other side of it, is that Voltaire is going to have a systemic influence not just on community funding but also the overall evolution and direction of the platform. The longer it exists the more pervasive it will become. Probably first applied towards the Cardano foundation roadmap but later on it will definitely have a lot of influence and say over every element aspect of the system including the launch dApps and these other things. Basically, long term, the types of problems that Cardano solves so that's incredibly appealing to me and very exciting to me because it's like I have this giant community brain with the best and brightest of all of you working with us to get us where we need to go.
You know, another thing that was super encouraging, it's a small thing, but it shows us that we're definitely in the right direction was that we recently got a demo from Pramod (Viswanath) and his team out of university of Illinois on a protocol they create called PrisM which is a super fast proof-of-work protocol and they wrote this beautiful paper and they wrote code along with it that showed that PrisM is a ten thousand times faster than Nakamoto consensus. If you take the bitcoin proof-of-work protocol, you strip it out, you put PrisM in, you can run the entire bitcoin system 10000 times faster. They have these beautiful benchmarks to show that. Even in bad network conditions. (I'm) promoting this team, they're, they're real researchers, and they're real engineers, they use a lot of cool HPC concepts like springboarding and other things like that to accommodate that. Then I asked him in the presentation, I said well, how much faster if you replay the Ethereum chain? He says, well, that it takes a big performance hit, could be only maybe a hundred times because that model is not as easy to optimize and shard with standard computer science concepts. In fact in some cases there are limitations there that really can't be overcome. It turns out that we're more on that UTXO side than we are on the account side. As a coincidence or intent of the design of extended UTXO we're gonna have a lot easier time getting much higher performance where and when it's necessary.
I also approved this week a scaling up of the Basho project. In particular, to build a hydra prototype team. The science has gotten to a point where we can make a really competitive push in that particular direction. What does that mean? It means that in just a few short months we can de-risk technological approaches that long-term will give us a lot of fruit where and when the community decides that they need infrastructure like hydra. Now, here's the beautiful thing about hydra. If you watch my whiteboard back in September of 2017 when Cardano first hit market with Byron I talked about this concept of looking at scalability with a very simple test which is as you get more people in the system it stays at the same performance or it gets faster. We all experience systems that do this, for example, bittorrent, more people downloading something you tend to be able to get it faster and we all experience the converse which is, the system gets slower when you get more people. What does this mean? It means that hydra is an actual approach towards true scalability in the system and it's a lot easier to do than sharding even though we have a beautiful approach to get the sharding on the ledger side if we truly desire to go down that way. There's beautiful ideas that we are definitely in deep discussions about. That's a very complex thing. There was recently a paper ("Ebb-and-Flow Protocols: A Resolution of the Availability-Finality Dilemma") out of Stanford that showed that the Gasper protocol as proposed for ETH2.0 does have some security concerns and it's going to be the burden on the shoulders of the Ethereum 2.0 developers and Vitalik to address those concerns from those Stanford professors. Whenever you have these very complex protocols they have so many different ways they can break and things can go wrong so it's much more appealing when you don't have to embrace complexity to achieve the same. The elegance of hydra is that stake pool operators are very natural parties to put hydra channels on and every time we add one we get much more performance out of that and the system as it gets more valuable. The k factor increases which means you get more stake pull operators, which means you get more hydra channels, so with growth we get appreciation, with appreciation we get more decentralization, with more decentralization we get more performance. In essence, this spiritually speaking, is really what we meant when we said scalability. That the system will always grow to meet its particular needs and we have a very elegant way of moving in that direction that doesn't require us to embrace very sophisticated techniques. It's not to say that these techniques don't have a place and purpose but it says that the urgency of implementing these is gone and we then have the luxury to pick the best science when it's ready instead of rushing it to market to resolve a crisis of high fees. We'll never have that crisis so there's a beauty to Cardano that is missing, I in my view, from many cryptocurrencies and blockchains in the marketplace and we're now seeing that beauty shine through. Not only through our community who are so passionate and amazing but in the science and the engineering itself and how easy it is for us to navigate the concepts. How easy it is for us to add more things, to take some things away, to clean some things up here and there and our ability to move through.
I never imagined when in 2015 I signed up to go in on this crazy ride and try to build a world financial operating system we would have made as much progress as we made today. We've written more than 75 research papers as an organization many of which are directly applicable to Cardano. We've got great partners who work with Nasa and Boeing and Pfizer, massive companies, that have 10 years of history and millions of users to come in and help us grow better. We've worked with incredible organizations, major universities like university of Wyoming, university of Edinburgh, Tokyo, tech professors all across the world. We've worked with incredible engineering firms like VacuumLabs and AtixLabs and Twig and Well-Typed, runtime verification, QuviQ and dozens of others along the years and despite the fact that at times there's been delays and friction throughout this entire journey we've mostly been aligned and we keep learning and growing. It gives me so much hope that our best days are ahead of us and an almost fanatical belief that success is inevitable in a certain respect. You see because we always find a way to be here tomorrow and we always find a way to make tomorrow a better day than today and as long as that's the trend you're monotonically increasing towards a better tomorrow, you're always going to have that outcome, you're always going to be in a position where Cardano shines bright. Towards the end of the month we'll have a lot more to say about the development side and that'll be a beginning just like Voltaire is the beginning and then suddenly you now notice the beautiful parallelism of the roadmap. Shelley continues to evolve, partial delegation is coming, in fact, I signed the contract with vacuumlabs to bring that to Ledger (and Trezor). The Daedalus team is hard at work to make that feature apparent for everyone as is the Yoroi team.
You see that, with now Voltaire, and soon was Goguen, and these are not endpoints, rather they're just beginnings and they're never over. We can always make staking better, more diverse, more merit-based and entertain different control models, have better delegation mechanics, have better user experience. The same for smart contracts, that's an endless river and along the way what we've discovered is it's easy for us to work with great minds and great people. For example with testing of smart contracts I would love to diversify that conversation above and beyond what we can come up with and bring in some firms who have done this for a long time to basically take that part with us shoulder to shoulder and build beautiful frameworks to assist us. For example, runtime verification is doing this with, the EVM with a beautiful project called Firefly to replace Truffle. I believe that we can achieve similar ends with Plutus smart contracts.
When you ask yourself what makes a system competitive in the cryptocurrency space? In my view there are four dimensions and you have to have a good story for all four of those dimensions. You need security and correctness. A lot of people don't prioritize that but when they get that wrong it hurts retail people, it hurts everyday people, billions of dollars have been lost due to the incompetence and ineptitude of junior developers making very bad mistakes and oftentimes those developers faced no consequences. The people who lost money were innocent people who believed in cryptocurrencies and wanted to be part of the movement but didn't protect themselves adequately. That's a really sad thing and it's unethical to continue pushing a model that that is the standard or the likely outcome rather than a rare edge case. You have to as a platform, a third generation platformn invest heavily in giving the developers proper tools to ensure security and correctness. We've seen a whole industry there's been great innovations out of Quantstamp and ConsenSys and dozens of other firms in the space including runtime verification who have really made major leaps in the last few years of trying to improve that story. What's unique to Cardano is that we based our foundations on languages that were designed right the first time and there's over 35 years of history for the approach that we're following in the Haskell side that allows us to build high assurance systems and our developers in the ecosystem to build high assurance systems. We didn't reinvent the wheel, we found the best wheel and we're giving it to you.
I think we're going to be dominant in that respect as we enter 2021. Second, you look at things like ease of maintenance, ease of deployment, the life cycle of the software upgrades to the software and as we've demonstrated with things like the hard fork combinator and the fact that Voltaire is not just a governance layer for ada and Cardano but will eventually be reusable for any dApp deployed on our system. You have very natural tooling that's going to allow people to upgrade their smart contracts, their dApps and enable governance for their users at an incredibly low cost and not have to reinvent the governance wheel each and every application. This is another unique property to our system and it can be reused for the dApps that you deploy on your system as I've mentioned before. Performance is a significant concern and this was often corrupted by marketers especially ICO marketers who really wanted to differentiate (and) say: "our protocol tested on a single server in someone's basement is 500000 transactions per second" and somehow that translates to real life performance and that's antithetical to anyone who's ever to study distributed systems and understands the reality of these systems and where they go and what they do and in terms of performance. I think we have the most logical approach. You know, we have 10 years of history with bitcoin, it's a massive system, we've learned a huge amount and there's a lot of papers written about, a lot of practical projects and bitcoin is about to step into the world of smart contracts. We congratulate them on getting Schnorr sigs in and the success of Taproot. That means entering 2021, 2022, we are going to start seeing legitimate dApps DeFi projects, real applications, instead of choosing Ethereum or Algorand, EOS, Cardano, choosing bitcoin and they're adding a lot to that conversation. I think that ultimately that model has a lot of promise which is why we built a better one. There are still significant limitations with what bitcoin can accomplish from settlement time to the verbosity of contracts that can be written.
The extended UTXO model was designed to be the fastest accounting and most charitable accounting model ever, on and off chain, and hydra was designed to allow you to flex between those two systems seamlessly. When you look at the foundations of where we're at and how we can extend this from domain specific languages, for domain experts, such as Marlowe to financial experts, and the DSLs that will come later, for others, like lawyers and supply chain experts in medical databases and so forth and how easy it is to write and deploy these. Plutus being beautiful glue code for both on and off chain communications. I think we have an incredibly competitive offering for performance and when hydra comes, simply put, there'll be no one faster. If we need to shard, we're going to do that and definitely better than anybody else because we know where our security model sits and there won't be surprise Stanford papers to blindside us that require immediate addressing.
In terms of operating costs, this is the last component, in my view, and that's basically how much does it cost you the developer to run your application? There are really two dimensions, one is predictability and the other is amount. It's not just good enough to say: it's a penny per transaction today. You need to know that after you spend millions of dollars and months or years of effort building something and deploying something that you're not going to wake up tomorrow and now it's five dollars to do what used to cost a penny. You need that cost to be as low as possible and as predictable as possible and again the way that we architectured our system and as we turn things on towards the end of this year and as we enter into the next year we believe we have a great approach to achieve low operating cost. One person asks why Cardano? Well because we have great security and correctness in the development experience and tools with 35 years of legacy that were built right the first time and don't put the burdens of mistakes on your customers. They ask why Cardano and we say: well the chain itself is going to give you great solutions with identity value transformation and governance itself and as a consequence when you talk about upgrading your applications having a relationship with your customers of your applications and you talk about the ease of maintenance of those applications. There's going to be a good story there and we have beautiful frameworks like Voltaire that allow that story to evolve and we keep adding partners and who have decades of experience to get us along. We won't stop until it's much better. They asked why Cardano? We said because at the moment we're 10 times faster today than Ethereum today and that's all we really need for this year and next year to be honest and in the future we can be as fast as we need to be because we're truly scalable. As the system gets more decentralized the system improves performance and where and when we need to shard we can do that. We'll have the luxury of time to do it right, the Cardano way, and when people ask why Cardano? Because the reality is, it's very cheap to do things on our platform and the way we're building things. That's going to continue being the case and we have the governance mechanisms to allow the community to readjust fees and parameters so that it can continue being affordable for users. Everything in the system will eventually be customizable and parameterizable: from block size, to transaction fees and the community will be in a good position to dynamically allocate these things where and when needed so that we can enjoy as an ecosystem predictability in our cost.
In the coming weeks and months, especially in my company, we're going to invest a lot of time and effort into comparison marketing and product marketing. When I see people say, oh well, you've launched proof of stake, a lot of other people have done. I don't think those people fully appreciate the magnitude of what we actually accomplished as an ecosystem and the quality of the protocols that are in distribution. That's not their fault, it's our fault, because we didn't take the time in simplistic terms, not scientific papers and deep code and formal specifications, but rather everyday language, to really show why we're different. I admit that that's a product failing and that needs to be corrected so we hired a great marketing director, named Liza (Horowitz?) and she is going to work full time with me and others in the ecosystem, a great team of people, every single day to get out there and explain what we have done is novel, unique, competitive and special to our industry. Everything from Ouroboros and contrast to major other protocols from the EOSes and Algorands and the Tezos of the world. Why we're different, trade-offs we chose over them, to our network stack, to the extended UTXO model, to Plutus, to Marlowe and we're going to keep hammering away at that until we get it right and everybody acknowledges and sees what has been accomplished.
I've spent five years of my life, good years of my life, and missed a lot to get this project where it needs to go. All of our employees have invested huge sums of their personal lives, their time, their brand, their careers, in trying to make this the really most magical and special cryptocurrency and blockchain infrastructure around. No one ever signed up in this company or the other companies working on Cardano to work on a mediocre protocol. That's just another blockchain, they signed up to change the world, they signed up to build a system that legitimately can look at you in the face and say: one day we have the potential to have a billion users! That's what they signed up for and they showed up to play. They built technology that evolves in that direction with some certainty and great foundations and we have an obligation to market in a way that can show the world why, succinctly, with clarity. Understandably, this has been a failing in the past but you know what? You can always be better tomorrow that monotonically increasing make it better and that's what we're going to do. We recognized it and we're going to invest in it and with Voltaire if we can't do it. You the community can do it and we'll work with you. If you can do a better job and the funding will be there to get that done. In addition to this, we think about 2021 and we ask where does the future take us? I've thought a lot about this you know I've thought a lot about how do we get the next five years as we close out 2020 and here's the reality: we're not going to leave as a company until we have smart contracts and multi-asset and Voltaire has evolved to a point where the community can comfortably make decisions about the future of the protocol and that the staking experience has solidified and it's stable.
I don't care if this costs me millions or tens of millions of dollars out of my own pocket to make happen. I'm going to do that because that's my commitment to you, the community and every product update will keep pushing our way there. We'll continue to get more transparent, we'll continue to get more aggressive and hire more and parallelize more. Aware when we can, to deliver that experience so that Cardano gets where it needs to go. Then when we ask about where do we go next? The reality is that the science as an industry, the engineering as an industry has given a menu of incredibly unique attractive and sexy things that we can pursue. What we're going to do is work with the community and the very same tools that are turning on today, the Voltaire tools, the cardano.ideascale.com tools and we're going to propose a consortium and we're going to bring the best and brightest together and give a vision of where we can take the system in another five years. With the benefit of hindsight, massively improved processes, better estimation capabilities and the fact that we're not starting with two people at IOG. We're starting with 250 people and the best scientific division in our industry and the legacy of almost, nearly by the end of this year, 100 scientific papers. That's us, you know what, there's dozens of companies throughout the history who have worked on Cardano. It's about time to scale them up too and get client diversity. So come next year when the protocol has evolved to the point where it's ready for it, we'll have that conversation with you the community and that's going to be a beautiful conversation. At the conclusion of it, there's going to be certainty of how we're going to evolve over the next five years to get ourselves beyond the cryptocurrency space. I'm very tired of these conversations we have about: are you going to go to (coindesk's) consensus or not? Or who's going to be the big winner? What about Libra or what about this particular regulation and this crypto unicorn and this thing?
You know I've been in the space a long time and I've noticed that people keep saying the same things year after year in the same venues. Yes, the crowd sizes get larger and the amount of value at risk gets larger but I haven't seen a lot of progress in the places where I feel it is absolutely necessary for this technology to be permanent in the developing world. We need to see economic identity. People often ask what is the mission for Cardano? For us IOG, you look at economic identity and you take a look at a roadmap. For it, you scale up and down, and each and every step along the way, from open data, to self-sovereign identity, to financial inclusion. You can keep going down: to decentralized lending, decentralized insurance, decentralized banking. Each and every step along the way to economic identity. When you admit a blockchain tells you that, there's a collection of applications and infrastructure that you need to build.
My life's work is to get to a point where we have the technology to do that. The infrastructure to do that, with principles, and so we'll keep evolving Cardano and we'll keep evolving the space as a whole and the science as a whole until I can wake up and say: each box and that road to economic identity, for all people not just one group, we have a solution for that. I'm going to put those applications on Cardano and success for me is not about us being king of the crypto hill and having a higher market cap than bitcoin or being entrepreneur of the year coindesk's most influential person. It's meaningless noise, success for me is reflecting back at the things that we have accomplished together and recognizing that millions if not billions now live in a system where they all matter, they all have a voice, they all have an equal footing. The Jeff Bezos of the world have the very same experience as the person born in Rwanda and we're not done until that's the case. It's a long road, it's a hard road, but you know what? We're making progress, we have great people in Africa, we have great people in eastern Europe, we have great people in southeast Asia and great partners all along the way. Great people, Latin America, great people in south America, great people here in the United States.
When we talk about economic identity there are millions, if not tens of millions of Americans who don't have it. Same for Canadians, hundreds of thousands, who don't have it. Developed western cultures, it's the greatest blind spot of policy and as we enter into a depression as a result of coronavirus, add millions if not tens of millions more onto that list. Generations are being disenfranchised by this legacy system and we as an ecosystem, we as an entire community are offering a different way forward. Not hyper centralizationn not social credit but a way forward where you own your own money, your own identity, your own data. You're not a victim of surveillance capitalism, you're not a victim of civil asset forfeiture. When you say the wrong things, you get shut out of society. Each and every human being matters and I'm optimistic to believe that when you remind people that they matter they're gonna rise to the occasion. That is the point of my company. In the things that we do each and every day, that's our mission to give the platforms to the world so that those who don't have economic identity can get it and they can keep it and no one can take it from them and they can enjoy an ever increasing growth of standard of living wealth and prosperity.
However you want to measure that this is my goal post, I couldn't care less about the cryptocurrency space. It was a great place to start but the space needs to be reminded why it exists. Bitcoin was given a mandate on the back of the 2008 financial crisis to do something different. It was not given a mandate to go be a new settlement layer for central banks or a new way for the old guard to make more money and banks get bigger and for those who are in control to preserve their power. The whole point of doing something so crazy as to buy a coin that doesn't even exist in real life, that's just a bunch of numbers in the cloud, the whole point of that was so that we as a society could do something different than the way that we'd been doing things before. So, each and every member of the cryptocurrency space needs to remind everyone else from time to time why we're here and where did we come from and where are we going to go.
The beauty of Cardano is we have already achieved for the most part a decentralized brain and that momentum is pushing harder than ever. More and more scientists are waking up, more and more institutions are waking up, getting us there. The code we have, the right approach and I think we have a great competitive offering for 2021 as we go and battle the titans and that's going to be a lot of fun but we know who we are and where we're going and we're in the right places. It's so incredibly encouraging to see the stake pool operators not just be from California or Texas or New York or Canada. To see a lot of stake pool operators from the place that need the most, help everybody does matter and it means a lot to me for the people who are there but it means a lot to everybody to say that we have created an equal platform. It makes the participation of all of us so much more meaningful. We're not just talking to each other, we're talking to the world and by working together on this platform we're lifting the world up and giving people hope. That's the point, there's a lot more to do, we didn't get everything done. You never do you aspire, you work hard, you set a moon, shot and sometimes you can just get to orbit with the first go but you know what? When you build the next rocket you can go to Mars.
Thank you all for being with me, thank you all for being part of this. Today was a damn good day with the announcement of Voltaire. Go to cardano.ideascale.com. You can participate in that, so end of September is going to be a good day too. There's a lot of good days to come, in between a lot of hard days, doing tasks sometimes entirely forgettable but always necessary to keep the revolution going and the movement going. I cannot wait for 2021, our best days are ahead of us, because of you. You all take care now .
Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BFa9zL_Dl_w
Other things mentioned:
https://cardano.ideascale.com/
https://www.atixlabs.com/blockchain
https://www.well-typed.com/
https://www.vacuumlabs.com/
https://medium.com/interdax/what-is-taproot-and-how-will-it-benefit-bitcoin-5c8944eed8da
https://medium.com/interdax/how-will-schnorr-signatures-benefit-bitcoin-b4482cf85d40
https://quantstamp.com/
https://bloxian.com/bloxian-platforms/ (TWIG)
https://runtimeverification.com/firefly/
https://www.trufflesuite.com/
https://experts.illinois.edu/en/publications/prism-deconstructing-the-blockchain-to-approach-physical-limits (PrisM and not our Prism https://atalaprism.io/)
Ebb-and-Flow Protocols: A Resolution of the Availability-Finality Dilemma (aka Gasper and ETH2.0 fucker) https://arxiv.org/abs/2009.04987
http://www.quviq.com/products/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schnorr_signature
submitted by stake_pool to cardano [link] [comments]

How does Bitcoin ATM allow you to purchase Bitcoins?

How does Bitcoin ATM allow you to purchase Bitcoins?
https://preview.redd.it/f2tluqt1cfr51.jpg?width=2400&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=9c5d4c926fd0ff5af215c26524537c1bf676b77b
Are you planning to invest in Bitcoin, well, there is no better time than today to invest in cryptocurrencies. There are many biotin exchange platforms where you can buy and sell Bitcoin. Amongst the various modes of going ahead with Bitcoin exchange, you can choose Bitcoin ATM for this. It is an easy way to buy and sell Bitcoin using a credit or debit card. When we are talking about bitcoin sale and purchase, we cannot miss speaking about Bitcoin Farming. In simple words, individuals who wish to become a part of the Bitcoin network, then you can do Bitcoin farming, which is nothing but extraction of the value of Bitcoin. Bitcoin farmers or Bitcoin miners solve computation problems, and they get rewarded for the same.
Bitcoin ATM: What should know?
Bitcoin ATM is a simple machine that is used for the sale and purchase of Bitcoin using debit and credit cards. Although Bitcoin has been there in the market for more than a decade now when it comes to Bitcoin ATM, these are a fairly new addition and easy to use and makes it easy for those who wish to exchange Bitcoin do that with ease.
The world got its first Bitcoin ATM in Vancouver, Canada, in 2013. At this ATM, the Bitcoin stalwarts can easily buy Bitcoin using the currency. This ATM is used to convert Bitcoin to Canadian Dollars and vice-versa. After this, Bitcoin ATMs have become very common. As of October 1st, 2020, there were around 10,503 Bitcoin ATMs globally.
Types of Bitcoin ATM:
There are two types of Bitcoin ATM:
· The basic one: These are used only to purchase Bitcoin
· Complex ones- These are used to buy and sell with virtual money. If you plan to use complex ATMs, you need to know that only the members of a particular ATM producer can use the ATM.
Some of the key players that are in the making of complex Bitcoin ATM are General Bytes, Genesis Coin. General Bytes has a market share of 30.3%, and Genesis Coin has a market share of 30.3 %.
The US has the highest number of Bitcoin ATM. Around 83% of the total global ATMs are located in North America.
Bitcoin exchange using General ATM
This is a general process of Bitcoin exchange using Bitcoin ATM, there may be slight variation in this, but the general process remains the same:
  1. The first step is verification (this may vary based on machine
  2. Now, you need to provide a Bitcoin address for deposit at some ATM.
  3. Insert cash into the ATM
  4. Confirm the operation (Bitcoin is sent to your Bitcoin address)
This is the basic step; however, you may find some variation in this based on ATM type. This is the right time to start investing in bitcoin, and with the prevalence of Bitcoin ATM, the task will become simpler.
Concluding thoughts-
To know more about Bitcoin and cryptocurrency exchange, log on to Blockchain Council. This is a leading platform that provides a Blockchain certification coursein Bitcoin and Blockchain. You can also learn about cryptocurrency trading. For more such interesting information, connect with Blockchain Council today.
submitted by Blockchain_org to BlockchainStartups [link] [comments]

[WTS] Junk Silver at or below Spot!!!

proof
All remaining Canadian $3600 USD or $4700 CAD shipped, and tracked Approx $230 face value. Under melt.
This is bitcoin price, price from PayPal from US is $75 more.
Buy it all and everything will be under melt!
Located in Canada, prices in Canadian dollars, but approximate USD per face value posted, this is all very cheap and I don’t mind shipping for free on 1000+ USD
I take crypto (preferred) and PayPal FF
Approx US price on Canadian is 16x Face
80% Canadian dimes $100 per roll (under melt)
92.5% Canadian dimes sold out
80 % Canadian quarters $205 per roll (under melt)
80 Canadian halves (only a few available) $10 each
80% Canadian dollars $21 (melt)
Also have a few loose quarters and dimes as well that aren’t rolled
American: ALL AMERICAN SOLD
6 peace dollars
27 walking liberty halves
1 Kennedy half (1964)
10 franklin halves
150 Washington quarters
100 mercury dime
50 other dimes (don’t know name)
Swiss of america 100oz bar $4800CAD (3650USD)
submitted by ehm1993 to Pmsforsale [link] [comments]

[WTS] $10 Gold Liberty’s,, 9.46 troy oz Canadian Junk @ SPOT, 1 oz rounds @ $2 over spot, 14k gold chains and bracelet, Alaska Gold Nugget, Apollo 11 - 1 oz

Proof: https://imgur.com/a/EtghQRQ
Spot price is currently $28.30 for silver and $2,035.21 for gold according to silverprice.org and goldprice.org
$10 Liberty Gold Eagle, 1894, 1901, 0.48375 oz AGW - $1020 Each LOW PREMIUM
9.46 Troy Oz ASW, Canadian Junk Lot, $5.90 FV - 80% Dimes, $9.5 FV - 80% Quarters, 2 - 50% quarters and 1 - 50% Dime - SPOT = $267.71
1962 Canada $1 Silver, 0.60 TROY OZ ASW - $18
1 oz. Highland Mint Silver Round - Seated Liberty Design .999 Fine - SPOT + $2 SOLD
2 - 1 oz Incuse Indian Silver Rounds 1929 - SPOT + $2 SOLD
Liberty Mint – U.S.S. Constitution Honest Value Never Fails 1 oz Silver Coin - SPOT + $1.75 SOLD
Apollo 11 50th Anniversary 2019 Proof Silver Dollar - 1 oz - $45* SOLD
1 oz 2013 Canadian Pronghorn Antelope Silver Coin - 1M Minted - Low - $35
Gold Nugget, 1.37 grams, 22-24K Purity, ElDorado Gold Mine, Fairbanks Alaska - $120 SOLD
All jewelry is in great condition, no kinks, tangles, etc unless stated otherwise
14K Chain - 30”Inches Ling - 17.94 grams - $770 SOLD
14K Bracelet - 8-8.5” Inches Long - 4.47 grams - $195 SOLD
14K Italy Chain/Necklace - 24”Inches Long - 5.03 grams - $215
925 Sterling Silver Bracelet 2.5” Diameter - $20
925 Sterling Silver Beaded Bracelet - 8”Inches Long - $30
Tom Hawk 925 Sterling Silver Cuff Bracelet - $60
The cuff bracelet measures 6.75 inches (inside circumference) with a gap of 1 inch. The bracelet is approximately .75 inches wide
Siam Sterling Silver Bangle Bracelet Etched Design Pattern - $55
925 Liquid Silver 30 Strand Necklace With 10 Strand Earrings - $60
Willing to work with you, I will consider all trades for any gold or silver
Payment
I accept PayPal Friends and Family, Zelle, Venmo, Cash App, Zelle, Google pay
Bitcoin and other crypto currencies now accepted
Shipping
0-4 oz - $4 5-8 oz - $4.25 9-12 oz - $6 Priority shipping =$8, Stamped envelope - $1, medium flat rate box = $15
•Signature Confirmation $3 (Optional)
•Insurance is also available at buyers expense.
•I pack safely and discretely.
•Prices are subject to change at any moments notice.
•Message me if you have any questions.
•All packages will be dropped off on Monday.
•Once I drop the package at the post office I’m not responsible for USPS mistakes or losses
submitted by Redditaccount1543354 to Pmsforsale [link] [comments]

Summary of all Season 7 POLL(s)

I thought it would be good to group all the polls here together so we can see the changes as more episodes revealed nore. Sorry for the formatting, I probably should have started this earlier. Credit to IlZazza who started the first poll and did the polls with me, and to NepaliQAnon, who I stole one from.
Season 7 viewers, which combination do you think will happen in the finale? (I hijacked this from NepaliQAnon’s poll)
Thought it would be interesting to poll the subreddit before the 3 hour finale. I personally think that 2 of them will make it, Callie and Roland. Roland has winter experience and has killed big game (also I think the Danger Rock ad is trying to throw us off). Callie always seems happy and looks like a very capable food gatherer. What do y'all think?
BTW I tried listing combinations with all 3 contestants but Reddit polls are limited to 6 options. Maybe the mods or someone else can make a Google Form survey if they are interested.
556 votes
30 = 5.4% All 3 of them will make it to the end
155 = 27.9% Only 2 of them will make it to the end
219 = 39.4% Only 1 of them will make it to the end
152 = 27.3% None of them will make it to the end

POLL Season 7 (Post) Episode 10 Who makes it to the end????

362 votes
217 = 59.9% Roland
60 = 16.6% Kielyn
19 = 5.2% Callie
25 = 6.9% All of them!
41 = 11.3% None of them!
POLL - What exactly is the prize/amount if there are multiple winners?
96 votes
38 = 39.6% $$$1 Million dollars to each one that makes 100 days
55 = 57.3% $$$1 Million split among anybody that makes the 100 days
2 = 2.1% None of the above
1 = 1.0% $$$ 1 Million each, but paid in Canadian, Bitcoin or some other lesser value currency
S7 E9 POLL who will tap out next?
326 votes
30 = 9.2% Callie
58 = 17.8% Amos
16 = 4.9% Roland
168 = 51.5% Kielyn
44 = 13.5% NOBODY
10 = 3.1% More than ONE
POLL - Which LOCATION is or was the HARDEST one for contestants??
222 votes
72 = 32.4%Vancouver Island British Columbia S1, S2 & S4
25 = 11.3% Patagonia, Argentina S3
52 = 23.4% Mongolia, S5
73 = 32.9% Great Slave Lake, NWT, CA, S6 & S7 (current)
S7E8// POLL // WINNER-S >>SPOILER<<
Please vote for your potential winner
150 votes
114 = 76.0% Roland Welker
15 = 10.0% Callie Russell
12 = 8.0% Amós Rodriguez
3 = 2.0% Joe Nicholas
3 = 2.0% Kielyn Marrone
3 = 2.0% Mark D'Ambrosio
POLL: How Many People Make 100 days?
242 votes
36 = 14.9% NONE
97 = 40.1% ONE
109 = 45.0% MULTIPLE WINNERS
predictions WHO IS NEXT? <>
198 votes
16 = 8.1% Mark D'Ambrosio
26 = 13.1% Kielyn Marrone
82 = 41.4% Joe Nicholas
12 = 6.1% Amós Rodriguez
11 = 5.6% Callie Russell
51 = 25.8% Joel Van Der Loon
* Roland not used due to 6 item restriction on polls and the popular belief that he will win.
WHO IS GOING ALL 100????
312 votes
5 = 1.6% Kielyn
29 = 9.3% Amos
7 = 2.2% Joel
242 = 77.6% Roland
17 = 5.4% Callie
12 = 3.8% Mark
Who is going to tap out next? (s7e6)
12 = 10.4% Joel Van Der Loon
9 = 7.8% Kielyn Marrone
69 = 60.0% Joe Nicholas
12 = 10.4% Amós Rodriguez
6 = 5.2% Callie Russell
7 = 6.1% Roland Welker
* Mark left out due to 6 item restriction on Polls and nobody thought he would tap. He didn't.
submitted by Burg1963 to Alonetv [link] [comments]

[WTS] $10 Gold Liberty’s, $2.50 Liberty Quarter Eagle, 9.46 troy oz Canadian Junk @ $1.85 over spot per oz, silver, 1 oz rounds, ASE, Maples, Krugerrand, Philharmonic, 1886 S $1, 14k chains, Alaska Gold Nugget

Proof: https://imgur.com/a/Cd4y1ZH
$10 Liberty Gold Eagle, 1894, 1901, 0.48375 oz AGW - $1030 Each LOW PREMIUM
1907 - $2.50 U.S Liberty Gold Quarter Eagle - $365
9.46 Troy Oz ASW, Canadian Junk Lot, $5.90 FV - 80% Dimes, $9.5 FV - 80% Quarters, 2 - 50% quarters and 1 - 50% Dime, $1 over spot per ounce - $255.42
1962 Canada $1 Silver, 0.60 TROY OZ ASW - $16
1987, 1992, 1993 American 1 oz Silver Eagles, Key Dates - $30 Each SOLD
2014, 2009 - 1 oz American Silver Eagles - $29 Each SOLD
2 - 2020, 2016 1 oz Canada Silver Maple Leafs - $28 Each SOLD
2020 1 oz Austria Silver Philharmonic - $27.50 SOLD
2020 South Africa 1 Oz Silver Krugerrand - $27.50 SOLD
1 oz. Highland Mint Silver Round - Seated Liberty Design .999 Fine - $28.75
2 - 1 oz Incuse Indian Silver Rounds 1929 - $28.75
Liberty Mint – U.S.S. Constitution Honest Value Never Fails 1 oz Silver Coin - $28
Walking Liberty 1 Troy Oz round - Money Metals Exchange - $27 SOLD
Walking Liberty 1/2 Troy Oz round - Money Metals Exchange - $13.15 SOLD
5 - Walking Liberty 1/10 Troy Oz Rounds - Money Metals Exchange - $3 Each SOLD
Apollo 11 50th Anniversary 2019 Proof Silver Dollar - 1 oz - $50
1 oz 2013 Canadian Pronghorn Antelope Silver Coin - 1M Minted - Low - $30
Gold Nugget, 1.37 grams, 22-24K Purity, ElDorado Gold Mine, Fairbanks Alaska - $120
1886 S Morgan Silver $1 Dollar Key Date - $50 SOLD
All jewelry is in great condition, no kinks, tangles, etc unless stated otherwise
14K Chain - 30”Inches Ling - 17.94 grams - $770
14K Bracelet - 8-8.5” Inches Long - 4.47 grams - $195
14K Italy Chain/Necklace - 24”Inches Long - 5.03 grams - $215
Willing to work with you, I will consider all trades for any gold or silver
Payment
I accept PayPal Friends and Family, Zelle, Venmo, Cash App, Zelle, Google pay
Bitcoin and other crypto currencies now accepted
Shipping
0-4 oz - $4 5-8 oz - $4.25 9-12 oz - $6 Priority shipping =$8, Stamped envelope - $1, medium flat rate box = $15
•Signature Confirmation $3 (Optional)
•Insurance is also available at buyers expense.
•I pack safely and discretely.
•Prices are subject to change at any moments notice.
•Message me if you have any questions.
•All packages will be dropped off on Tuesday or Wednesday.
•Once I drop the package at the post office I’m not responsible for USPS mistakes or losses
submitted by Redditaccount1543354 to Pmsforsale [link] [comments]

City Cultural Exchange: This Friday August 21 at 19:00 we'll have our first cultural exchange with another city/country on reddit, this one will be with /r/Lebanon - at the same time it's a way to show our support for another capital going through an extremely hard time!

Hi everyone,

Hope you’re all as well as you can be in the End Corona Times, the mods of /Berlin were thinking for a while of starting a city cultural exchange program on reddit. It will work just like the country cultural exchanges, except with a focus on city cultural. This sort of cultural exchange would give us an opportunity to meet the culture of other cities through reddit! I’ll try to organize this on a semi-regular basis, I hope it’ll be fun and informative for all.
If you have any questions or suggestions, comment below!

The first city will be Beirut, Lebanon.

We thought that perhaps we could also do some good with this as well and asked the moderators of /Lebanon if they would want to be our first cultural exchange, representing Beirut. We also asked if they could recommend any charities and NGOs to donate to and they sent us an explanation with a list of organizations that they trust. If you have any other way of helping the people of Beirut, share it with us, they need all the help they can get.

The date and time of this event is Friday August 21th, 2020 at 19:00 Berlin-time.

The event will be stickied on /berlin on Friday and I’ll edit this post to include a link to it here:
(Future Link)
Without further ado, this is a little introduction from the moderators of /Lebanon in preparation for the event about Lebanon and what is going on:
There is an important link in the introduction to another reddit post where they list out the NGOs and charities that are safe to donate to. They took a lot of time researching and even calling some of these organizations to make sure the donations get to the places they are needed.
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Quick explanation of what is happening in Lebanon (Before the explosion): https://imgur.com/a/Ixo3v8S

Introduction

Lebanon is a tiny country in the middle east. It's bordered by Syria from the north and east, Israel from the south, and the Mediterranean Sea from the west. Syria has been in a deadly civil war since 2012.
Lebanon went into a long and deadly civil war in the 70s and 80s. It only ended when the war lords sat together and decided that instead of attempting to kill each other, why not become rulers and split the gains. Thus from the early 90s until today Lebanon has been ruled by the same warlords that fought in the civil war. The speaker of the parliament never changed, not even once, and the rest of MPs and politicians just switched ministries and places every few years to present the image of democracy.
Lebanon also has Hizbollah, an organization that is labelled as a terrorist organization by many countries. Hizbollah has more powerful intelligence and military than the Lebanese government itself. The organization has unobstructed powers, for example, it started the 2006 war with Israel without the acceptance of the official Lebanese government.
Lebanese politicians save their billions and billions of dollars in savings in banks across Europe, mainly Switzerland.
Lebanon doesn't have oil, nor a serious construction sector. Lebanon relies on the service sector and tourism to survive, both of which are almost non-existent at this point. Lebanon has a huge crippling debt. Lebanon's capital, Beirut, was voted the most expensive city to live in in the middle east two years ago. Lebanon's passport is one of the worst passports in the world and doesn't allow you to visit any notable country without a visa.

October 2019 - Political, COVID-19 and Economical Problems

In October 2019, the government approved a law that would increase taxes, and tax the usage of Whatsapp. The Lebanese population attempted a peaceful revolution, the country effectively closed down from October until December. The revolution was successful in forcing the government to resign, but wasn't able to make the president, MPs or speaker of the parliament resign.
Things went to shit after that, unofficial capital control started in October. The bank declared that people can't withdraw money from their savings or current accounts. People weren't allowed to transfer money outside Lebanon or use any credit or debit card internationally. The government started considering a haircut. The currency started to lose value rapidly.
The official rate is currently 1$ = 1,515 LBP while the black market rate is 1$ = 8,500 LBP
The money stuck in the bank is useless, almost frozen because it can't be withdrawn without losing ~65% of it's value and even then, in small quantities.
Add to that COVID-19 is ripping the country. We're having exponential growth in the number of cases right now.

The Explosion

On August 4, 2020 multiple explosions occurred in Beirut Port that destroyed half the city, killed hundreds, with an additional large number of people missing, injured hundreds of thousands of people and made 300,000 people homeless. 80000 children displaced. The explosion was so big that it was heard and felt in Cyprus and Syria. There were reports of damages to properties from the explosions all over Lebanon, not just in Beirut.
The explosion destroyed half of the city including busy hospitals, which ended up causing people to have to deliver or have critical operations using the flash light from the doctors' cellphones.
The explosion killed several foreign nationals including French, German, Canadian, American, and Australian citizens. LINK
This post is made to raise awareness about what happened in Lebanon by sharing the videos of the incident. Please note that those videos are graphic as they show the moment the explosion happened.

Donation Help

Any kind of monetary donation will go a LONG way during these times.
You can donate using your credit card, paypal account, bank transfer or bitcoin donation.

You can find a list of verified and safe NGOs to donate to here: https://www.reddit.com/lebanon/comments/iaakslist_of_lebanese_ngos_that_are_verified_and_safe/


You can check out some of the videos here:
Reddit Links:
The /Lebanon twin-announcement thread to this can be found here: https://www.reddit.com/lebanon/comments/icllh8/this_friday_august_21_8pm_cultural_exchange_with/
submitted by llehsadam to berlin [link] [comments]

Gold and Silver: Where Do They Go From Here?

https://federationofglobalmerchants.com/2020/08/14/gold-and-silver-where-do-they-go-from-here/

Investors know by now that one of the leading indicators of an unstable and unpredictable stock market is a surge in the price of precious metals like gold and silver. In February, amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, the markets officially entered a recession, even though just months later several of the major indices have reached all-time highs. It was a brief dip into recessionary territory, but this sort of volatility is what gives investors hesitation in putting their money into the stock market, rather than something that is perceived to be more stable. Gold future contracts are selling well above $2000 per ounce for the rest of 2020 and well into 2021 as well showing that investors are confident that gold will continue to rise in price. Silver is also surging reaching new all-time highs on a daily basis. So investors may be curious as to how to get into this red-hot market, especially as the markets continue to fluctuate.
Gold:
For centuries now gold has been literally the ‘gold-standard’ of currency and wealth. Dating back all the way to around 40,000 B.C. in Spanish caves, gold is a naturally occurring element that has both fascinated and lured people for as long as barter systems and wealth has been recorded. Currently, gold is enjoying its highest valuations in history as investors flock to the stability of the precious metal through various streams. So what is the allure of gold and why is it so stable?
Warren Buffett once said, “Gold is a way of going long on fear.” That is quite a statement from perhaps the greatest investment mind of our generation. But what does this mean for the novice investor? Even the most successful blue-chip stocks can crash. Obviously the more prominent and profitable companies with mega market caps will not crash as easily as smaller companies, but given the volatility of the pandemic, we can see anything happen. But as stock markets fluctuate on a daily basis, the price of gold remains mostly stoic. Not as manipulatable as stock prices, gold is as steady as it gets for investors.
What makes gold so stable? It is a combination of factors, first and foremost, it is a physical and tangible element which makes it possible for people to store and stockpile. It does not corrode or wear down over time, making it durable and ensuring that the value remains. There is also a finite supply of it in the world. This reinforces that it will always keep a certain level of valuation as the supply is kept in check.
Today, as the Federal Reserve tries desperately to pump money into the American economy to stave off a global recession and keep companies afloat. Printing more American dollars helps in the interim, but it is a temporary band-aid for the bigger problem. As more of the dollar gets created the more it gets devalued as a form of currency. This is another reason why gold is skyrocketing. The two valuations always work inversely to each other, so as the greenback continues to plummet, the price of gold will continue to surge which makes perfect sense if one thinks about it. The value of gold is priced in American dollars per ounce, so if the value of an American dollar retreats, the cost of gold will rise in response.
So how can investors take advantage of the current state of gold? In the age of internet investing, there are plenty of ways to invest in gold or anything in that matter. Most American platforms give inventors the ability to buy fractional shares of companies. While this comes in handy for expensive stocks like Amazon (NASDAQ:AMZN), Alphabet (NASDAQ:GOOGL), or Tesla (NASDAQ:TSLA), it also allows investors to diversify their funds across multiple companies to form a basket approach to an industry. There are also plenty of ETFs or Exchange Traded Funds, available for investors to consider. These funds have the diversification of a mutual fund or index fund, but trade like individual stocks. Here’s a few of the better gold ETFs to consider if you are looking to get into the industry:
  1. IAU – iShares Gold Trust: One of the better known gold ETFs out there, iSHARES is a reputable brand with great overall market performance. The fund has returned over 17% to inventors already this year, and with the price of gold projected to continue to rise, this fund should keep delivering for investors into next year.
  2. DGL – Invesco DB Gold Fund: Another well known and reputable ETF, the Invesco Gold Fund has slightly higher fees than iSHARES but has also had a slightly better return so far this year.
  3. IAUF – iShares Gold Strategy ETF: Another iSHARES ETF, this one has parts of IAU, as well as gold futures contracts, to get a long term forecast of the price of gold so the investor gets exposure to a wider range of gold options.
There are dozens of other ETFs available for investors that cover everything from miners to the finished products. Mining company stocks are another great way to get exposure. As the demand for gold increases, these mining companies should see a rise in their revenues and eventually, their profits as well. These changes will be reflected in their stock prices and we have already seen some of this already this year.
  1. ABX – Barrick Gold: One of the largest gold mining companies in the world, this Canadian company has seen healthy gains in their stock price so far in 2020. Over the last 52 weeks, Barrick investors have enjoyed a 131% increase in stock price. With mining projects ongoing in Canada, America, Australia, South America, and Africa, Barrick has already announced that it is on track to achieve guidance this year despite closures from COVID-19.
  2. FNV – Franco-Nevada Gold: This stock price rose almost 15% in July alone. Franco-Nevada operates as a funding company to gold mining companies, rather than actually doing the mining themselves. Sustainalytics, a guidance and analysis company, rated Franco-Nevada number one amongst 104 precious metal companies.
  3. NEM – Newmont Goldcorp: The largest gold stock by market-cap and the only stock to trade on the S&P 500, Newmont is probably the safest company for gold investors to invest in. On top of steady returns and low volatility in the stock price, the company pays a fairly healthy dividend as well.
With gold at all-time highs, we can begin to question how high the precious metal may go. With a second wave of the coronavirus making its way around some parts of the world, and America, still making its way through their initial wave, the uncertainty that exists in today’s markets may continue into 2021. Some Wall Street analysts have forecast gold to rise as high as $10,000 per ounce, but that seems like a little ambitious. Gold has just recently hit all-time highs at $2000 per ounce and to imagine that it can run up another 500% in the next few years seems far-fetched at this point in time. That would require the markets to enter an extended bear-market, which of course is possible after a decade of a bullish run, but it would also require the American dollar to continue to be further devalued.
Gold is pegged to continue to rise for the rest of this year though and well into 2021. That means investors and analysts are foreseeing a further devaluation of the American greenback as well as continued volatility in the markets and economy. Is gold a safe haven? Some people believe it is, but if you are an investor that enjoys high returns over long periods of time, investing in precious metals may not be for you. Investors love the stability of gold but the returns are never astronomical, with the last few months being an exception. It helps to have a portion of your portfolio dedicated to precious metals to diversify and protect you from any sudden market corrections, but investors should not be looking at gold as a short-term way to get wealthy.
Silver: The other precious metal that has been flying sky-high of recent months is silver, the eternal younger brother to gold. Mined from silver-ore, it is a highly malleable metal that was once valued higher than gold by the Ancient Egyptians. Today, it is relatively low in price per ounce compared to gold, reaching all-time highs recently of just under $30 per ounce. Silver is another stable alternative to gold, and at lower prices, it may be a little more affordable for the novice investor to jump into.
Like with gold, silver has an inverse relationship to the American dollar, and to all currencies in general. Again, this is another reason why silver is hitting all-time highs right now, with silver future contracts predicting a steady rise to mirror gold, well into 2021. There is also something that Wall Street calls the gold silver ratio, which is exactly what it sounds like: the ratio of the price of gold per ounce to the price of silver per ounce. This ratio has historically moved together, which makes logical sense if both precious metals are independently moving inverse to paper currencies. Historically, the gold and silver prices do move together though as the general ratio has been in the range of 17:1 to 20:1.
Silver also has numerous ways for investors to get involved in, including silver mining and production companies, as well as the ever popular silver ETFs. These Exchange Traded Funds have gained popularity amongst retail investors in recent years as a way of purchasing a diversified product as a single equity with low costs, and no trading fees if your platform allows it. Here are a few of the better performing silver ETFs that investors can look into adding to their portfolios if they are interested in the precious metal:
  1. SLV – iShares Silver Trust: Probably one of the better known silver ETFs, this is fully backed by silver bullion and coins held in a vault. While usually fairly steady, this ETF has enjoyed a 52-week increase of 152% with much of that coming in the last few months.
  2. SIVR – Aberdeen Standard Physical Silver Shares ETF: Very similar to SLV but with lower fees, this is an ideal fund for novice and experienced investors to get into as they start to diversify their portfolios.
  3. DBS – Invesco DB Silver Fund: Again another stable ETF for investors to get into, and another good performing one as well. Just as with their gold ETF, Invsco focuses on silver futures contracts for this fund, so it is a nice long-term play if investors are bullish on silver.
Just as with gold, investors can get a slice of the silver pie by buying shares of silver mining companies as well. Here are a few of the top silver mining company stocks that investors can look into adding to their portfolios.
  1. PAAS – Pan American Silver Corp.: This Canada based miner is focussed on the exploration, development, extraction, refining, processing, and reclamation of silver. They operate mines in Peru, Mexico, Bolivia, and are developing more as well for the future.
  2. WPM – Wheaton Precious Metals: Another Canadian based company that deals with miners of gold, silver, palladium, and cobalt. Wheaton is not a direct miner, rather they purchase these precious metals from other mining companies.
  3. AG – First Majestic Silver Corp.: Canadian companies seem to be dominating the silver industry, and First Majestic is another of those. This company focuses mainly in Mexico for gold and silver.
Silver may never be as popular as gold for investors to keep track of but the two precious metals move in a synchronized fashion, and both are looked upon by investors as safe havens for their money when the market is in flux.
The rest of 2020 seems like a wildcard right now, with many analysts expecting a further correction to the markets at any point. There seems to be an inevitability to a market crash of some sort, whether it is as big as the one that happened back in February and March, remains to be seen. Investors are looking at the precious metal industry to hold their funds to wait out any sort of correction or crash. If this does happen, we may expect a pullback in precious metals too as investors selloff to get back into some stocks at their low levels. Such is the ebb and flow of the economy during turbulent times like the current one we are in.
At the same time, what if a market correction does not happen? Will the uncertainty continue or will investors feel relatively secure in the way the markets are progressing? This could cause a reduction in the demand for silver and gold, culminating in lower prices in the future. Of course this also depends on the Federal Reserve diminishing their rate of printing paper currency to bailout the economy, which does not seem like a reality in the short-term at least.
Another point of contention for investors is the ongoing economical and political tensions between China and America. The two world powers have been feuding for the past couple of months over various things, but it escalated as China social media app Tik Tok gained popularity in North America. It was alleged that TikTok was sending data and information from mobile phones back to China, though nobody is sure of their intended use of this data. Regardless, the markets have stumbled several times lately because of this. Both sides have threatened economic sanctions and the banning of certain product use in each country. The prices of silver and gold have shot up as the tensions have escalated between the two governments, as investors flock to the precious metals. Many of the biggest companies on the major stock indices rely on China for materials or production, so any sort of breakdown in supply chains could cause an enormous change to their stock prices. An example of this is a sudden 5% correction in the price of Apple (NASDAQ:AAPL), as it was thought that iPhone sales would decline if China’s chat platform WeChat was banned in America.
There are other factors that may have an effect on gold and silver prices as well. In this modern economy, many of the retail investors have trended towards younger adults with a sudden influx of income. Popular platforms such as Robinhood combined with increased time at home during the quarantine, have caused retail investor usage to skyrocket during the pandemic. Many of these investors are more lured in by the shiny new objects of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. Perhaps we will start thinking of these cryptocurrencies as a modern day version of precious metals one day, as many investors and some analysts, believe that Bitcoin may be a safe haven in the future. Already, the price of Bitcoin has risen above $12,000 in August, mirroring the highs of gold and silver. If the demand for Bitcoin rises higher than the demand for precious metals, we may see an investor migration to cryptocurrencies rather than tangible metals.
Conclusion: Gold and silver are staples of our global economy, and will continue to be so as long as the demand for precious metals exists. In times of uncertainty, gold and silver are viewed as safe relative to the volatility of the stock market. Sure, their prices can vary as well, but because they are tied to a less dynamic valuation that is based on an inverse relation to paper currency, their prices will not and can not fluctuate as much as the liquidity of individual stocks.
As long as the world remains in flux, there will be a general feeling of instability, especially for global markets. A second wave of COVID-19 in the third or fourth quarter of 2020 could prove to be enough to push the markets over the edge and into another recession. The bull market has been rallying for over a decade now, with astronomical gains over the last few years, especially for sectors like the big tech FAANG stocks. Another factor to consider is what a Biden government could bring to the world if he is elected over President Donald Trump in October. A new government could ease some of the tensions with China, as well as within America itself. These are all big what ifs, and could all have potential impacts on the economy and the world. As long as all of these factors are up in the air, investors will be looking to gold and silver as ways of stabilizing their portfolios and protecting their finances from a potential market crash in the future.
submitted by Toughcatlove to u/Toughcatlove [link] [comments]

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