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The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain

The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain
There is not going to be one blockchain to rule them all, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Interoperability is key to unlocking the true potential of blockchain, where it will have a profound effect across all industries, creating a secure, trusted and hyper-connected world.
The rise of The Networks of Networks, interconnecting all DLT Networks, existing off-chain networks and even the Internet itself. Where true, scalable interoperability can be achieved without requiring connected chains to fork their code and imposing limitations, without the overhead, bottleneck and single point of failure of adding another blockchain in the middle. Where it will be quick, easy and free to participate.
It’s time to stop the childish tribalism that’s plagued this space for so long and realise the bigger picture. Tribes fighting amongst themselves over a tiny insignificant island where there is a whole world out there to conquer if they work together. A rising tide lifts all boats and with the birth of The Network of Networks all connected projects can benefit from the efforts of each other, to usher in Mass adoption of Blockchain.
https://preview.redd.it/wlwj7pmmyoi41.png?width=683&format=png&auto=webp&s=34918b25c8ef6303fc5579666352e8c8c52c4835
In this article I will discuss the foundations that are being laid in preparation for the release of Overledger Network, The Network of Networks to make all of this possible and to unleash the true potential of blockchain with a secure, hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Table of Contents:
  1. Overledger SDK Update
  2. Standards
  3. Security
  4. Regulation
  5. Overledger Network
  6. The Five Ingredients of Interoperability
  7. Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger
  8. Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain
  9. Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Overledger SDK Update

Quant have just released their Overledger SDK update which has enabled standardisation of objects to abstract and simplify how to interact with different types of blockchains (UXTO and Account-based) in a common model. As well as the ability to directly deploy, invoke and query smart contracts directly through Overledger. I strongly recommend reading the teams Overledger SDK Update which explains it in more detail and includes example use cases of how Overledger is being used and the benefits it brings. Dr Luke Riley also did a fantastic job providing an in-depth demo of the Overledger SDK Update via Video as well.
https://youtu.be/PbpaZpe4mTQ

“This update sets the foundations to build the ecosystem for Overleger Network, allowing stakeholders other than Quant to write any type (DLT and non-DLT) Overledger connectors and sets up the ecosystem with multiple entry points for Overledger Gateways. These updates open up the integration capabilities of Overledger to 3rd parties and create the foundations for the Overledger Network”

Standards

“Trusted standards mean that industry doesn’t need to reinvent the wheel, that innovations will be compatible and work with existing technology, and that products and services will be trusted too. Governments use standards as trusted solutions to complement regulation, and they give peace of mind to consumers who know they are not putting themselves or their families at risk.” — Acting ISO Secretary-General Kevin McKinley
The foundations need to align with internationally recognised standards as they play a crucial role in ensuring interoperability with new and existing technology and validates a product meets the best practices / regulation required to ensure Enterprises remains in compliance. CEO of Quant, Gilbert Verdian, founded the ISO TC 307 standard covering blockchain as a whole, which 56 countries are working towards today.
Countries involved with ISO TC 307 — https://www.iso.org/committee/6266604.html?view=participation
Gilbert Verdian is the chairman for the ISO TC 307 working group for interoperability of blockchain and distributed ledger technology systems as well as being chairman for Blockchain and Distributed Ledger Technology for BSI (British Standards Institution) which represent the UK and includes companies such as Quant, IBM, Microsoft, HSBC, BAE Systems, Huawei as well as a number of UK Government bodies such as BEIS — Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, Defence Science and Technology and the National Cyber Security Centre.
The standardisation updates to the Overledger SDK aligns with the work in ISO TC 307 and academic work from Dr Paolo Tasca and Dr Claudio Tessone to provide users with a clear distributed ledger data standard. This will enable everyone to easily create connectors in a standard way, facilitating interoperability with all of the connected blockchains / non-DLT networks that are already connected to Overledger through Overledger Gateways.

Security

Cybersecurity is in Quant’s DNA. The team have a rich heritage of working for Governments, banks and industry for over 20 years protecting organisations and people from security threats. Before Quant, Gilbert Verdian was the Chief Information Security Officer for Vocalink (Mastercard) where he was in charge of security for the entire payments infrastructure in the UK (£6 Trillion per year).
Gilbert has led a team determined to take security to another level, protecting a critical part of the UK’s infrastructure, protecting UK citizens and businesses from fraud and risk and, by extension, allowing them to live as they want to. Under Gilbert’s guidance, Vocalink security is not merely best-in-class, but setting a new standard. — https://connect.vocalink.com/2017/july/a-winning-streak/
In addition to Quant being selected as a Guarantor for Pay.UK, Gilbert has also been appointed to the Cybersecurity Advisory Board (Pay.UK is the UK’s leading retail payments authority and runs the UK’s retail payments operations, which includes Bacs, Faster Payments and Cheques.)
The pillars of security are Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability. As such, they have used their experience in running payment and financial infrastructure and critical national infrastructure for nations and embedded these principles into every aspect of Overledger.

Regulation

Regulation is playing an ever increasing role for blockchain. Standards and Security naturally complement and help define regulation. The verticals Quant are involved in with regards to regulation span the globe. Gilbert helped shape the conversation about consumer data protection rights during his time as CISO of NSW Health, and is continuing to serve as a cornerstone for policy within the adoption of blockchain in public infrastructure. Quant serves as a founding member of INATBA (The International Association of Trusted Blockchain Applications), which is the formal governing body of the European Blockchain Partnership, all of which is overseen in Brussels by the EU. More locally, Gilbert and team are in consistent contact with the House of Lords within the UK, and advises the FCA in matters regarding cryptoassets.
https://preview.redd.it/9eynt6jpyoi41.png?width=735&format=png&auto=webp&s=c6073e7717ece1c8b878e02e34c9e359e3282fd7
As recently seen in the SDK update, Overledger can serve as a key component of automatic compliance of governance bodies’ financial regulation, shown here by an Overledger instance reporting to the BoE’s Prudential Regulation Authority. Project BARAC, stewarded by University College London, is a project examining the impact Automatic Regulation as administered by Blockchain can have on the Federal Government. Most notably, the FCA and R3, the developers of Corda, are involved here. Gilbert’s recent engagements with the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston also seem to revolve around this very topic, with the Boston Fed pilot-testing a Supervisor Node for automatic regulatory compliance. While at P2PFISY 2019, it was noted by Gilbert that Raphael Auer’s “Regulation Automata” aligns very well with the vision of Overledger, with Paolo Tasca, former CSO of Quant, more recently co-hosting a recent blockchain panel with him. Raphael’s ideas will most likely be taken into consideration by the BIS, as they recently announced a trial of a 6 central banks collaboration centered around exploring CBDC, and are in the early stages of installing Innovation Hubs in Hong Kong, Switzerland, and Singapore.
Gilbert Verdian with Guy Dietrich (Managing Director at Rockefeller Capital who is also on the Board at Quant) attending a meeting with the Financial Conduct Authority

Overledger Network

https://preview.redd.it/1wgbdybryoi41.png?width=1684&format=png&auto=webp&s=baf87b413947a19e745fcd859c0706a1cf8570b2
The Overledger Network is a network of networks, which allows enterprise and communities stakeholders to access and participate in a growing hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Enterprises, banks, central banks, trading venues, etc will be able to host their own secure dedicated gateways, enabling secure connectivity to permissioned networks, permissionless networks, ecosystems, consortia and other distributed technologies. Community members will also be able to run an Overledger gateway to further enhance the scalability, decentralisation and optimise network latency, providing enterprises, developers and users choice to use the closest gateway when accessing permissionless blockchains. The Overledger gateways will create a scalable p2p network that shares the transaction and volume between participants and chooses the closest or largest node to transact with.
As per the example use case in the recent update a Bank can run an Overledger Gateway to provide access to the various consortiums hosted on a variety of blockchains including Corda, Hyperledger Fabric and JP Morgan’s Quorum as well as access to the legacy / non-DLT platforms. Should they want to utilise a public blockchain as well in a hybrid scenario then they also have the option of using a Overledger Gateway hosted by a community member.
https://preview.redd.it/veb0q18syoi41.png?width=1096&format=png&auto=webp&s=c8ea3bedd09e16e548c6da938d50f3b245e18ac6

https://preview.redd.it/r9j1v04tyoi41.png?width=1252&format=png&auto=webp&s=ae9cc70a01f6360550d7f1f00e046d9b801b89a1
The Overledger Gateways contain several layers which we will explore some of their features below:

Overledger Operating System

https://preview.redd.it/9v7rxtmvyoi41.png?width=1197&format=png&auto=webp&s=01c9d6e0a73f595283e3cebeb45b5a6bf484d94d
Overledger allows connection to any blockchain / DAG as well as easily integrating with existing non-DLT environments. It does this without adding the overhead of yet another blockchain / consensus in the middle, ensuring that it’s scalable and doesn’t contain a single point of failure. Nor does it require the connected blockchains to fork their code to integrate and place restrictions on what can be implemented going forward. All of this is done in a secure, trustless manner where transactions are signed and encrypted client side so the contents can’t be viewed / modified as they pass through Overledger. It currently connects all of the leading permissioned and permissionless blockchains used by enterprises today. This article explains the differences between other interoperability solutions and the benefits of Quant’s approach

The Five Ingredients of Interoperability:

Recently there was an interoperability webinar with Fintech connect with speakers such as R3’s CTO Richard Gendal Brown, along with representatives from the Bank of England, Deutsche Boerse, Nasdaq, ArchaxEx and SwissRe. Richard Gendal Brown from R3 wrote about the Five key Ingredients of Interoperability:
https://preview.redd.it/18e9wwq7zoi41.png?width=2356&format=png&auto=webp&s=537b2e70139bb0e70fcd615c497541fc89bba97f
  1. INTEGRATE with existing business systems — Businesses aren’t going to replace their existing applications for new blockchain ones, they need to integrate with their existing systems.
  2. INITIATE Payments on existing rails or blockchain rails — Needs to be able to make a payment / settlement using a wide variety of existing payment rails (off chain) as well as blockchain rails, ensuring delivery vs payment can be achieved with certainty that they have happened.
  3. INTERCHAIN applications and smart contracts that can be deployed / executed across protocols — Enabling a solution built on Corda such as Marco Polo to easily connect to a solution on another platform such as Vakt on Ethereum or CargoSmart on Hyperledger Fabric etc
  4. INTRACHAIN applications that benefit from value add of same underlying protocol — What happens when networks such as Marco Polo and Contour both running on Corda want to interoperate and the additional value and benefit that can be achieved.
  5. INTERCHANGE applications to switch platforms — What happens if you want to interchange one platform for another. Can you achieve that holy grail of interoperability by being able to be completely agnostic to the underlying platform?
Overledger meets all of these key ingredients in performing interoperability. Overledger enables existing business systems to benefit from blockchain connectivity by adding as little as 3 lines of code to their existing applications. No need to completely rewrite / replace their existing systems and all done in the most common programming languages such as Java and JavaScript.
https://preview.redd.it/7jqjt9v8zoi41.png?width=1127&format=png&auto=webp&s=6f40c1ae463d76c6c6b46a9e716e544e06ef3cd4
At QuantX in December they announced Overledger Interchange which enables settlement on a variety of existing non-dlt payment rails such as Faster Payments, BACS, CHAPS, SEPA, SWIFT as well as on DLT payment rails such as with Central Bank Digital Currencies, Stablecoins and XRP. It also facilitates Cross Chain Atomic Swaps using Hash Time Locked Contracts ensuring Delivery vs Payment is achieved. Interchange is at the centre of the discussions Quant has had with traditional exchanges in capital markets and central banks and is a technology financial services have been missing and was built it address client needs.
Overledger enables interoperability within the same ecosystem such as Corda DAPP to another Corda DAPP etc as well as interoperability between any of the connected permissionless and permissioned blockchains.
Quants blockchain agnostic Operating System enables users to benefit from using the best features from different chains in combination and migrate between them, preventing Vendor or Tech Lock in without having to completely rewrite existing applications, achieving the holy grail of interoperability. It enables developers to quickly test a variety of connected blockchains in a sandbox environment to see which is best suited for their requirements, starting with just 3 lines of code.

Transactions Services Layer

https://preview.redd.it/xfthwuz9zoi41.png?width=771&format=png&auto=webp&s=8721b0ae8cff0d8aa11a484ac0ac842e700def0a
The Transaction Services layer handles more complex features of Overledger. Allowing for applications to request services such as cross-chain atomic swaps, treaty contracts (Multi Chain Smart Contracts as well as enabling smart contract functionality even on blockchains that don’t support smart contracts natively such as Bitcoin) and transaction brokering (using heuristic analysis to determine which method is the fastest / cheapest out of the various payment rails)

Financial Services Layer

https://preview.redd.it/4zgt0umazoi41.png?width=740&format=png&auto=webp&s=49a840532d70740a77c00901aafd047311b84229
Financial services features can be called upon by participants and applications to use crosschain and cross-platform. Financial Services specific use cases can use the features in Overledger to operate across networks. This layer provides enhanced privacy and security to regulated entities and institutions who require additional controls to maintain compliance to regulation and security policy. The features of Zero-knowledge Proof and privacy can be mandated for all transactions.

Channels Layer

https://preview.redd.it/ef5z0jbbzoi41.png?width=752&format=png&auto=webp&s=3fd398e0b9917e338fb6c3e0afb477d82dfeb1c8
Channels provide interoperability of services related to digital assets, payments and tokenisation. The Overledger Network allows for participants to transfer interoperate enterprise and institutional issued tokens and assets. Connect to many existing payment rails such as SWIFT, SEPA, Faster Payments etc.
https://preview.redd.it/0u93b51czoi41.png?width=1441&format=png&auto=webp&s=a7ecbf440684a926b66db7273fdba9acfda826d7

Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger

The connectors to Overledger which grant access to Overledger Network will be open source and soon be made available, allowing for anyone to create a connector and benefit from being part of the ecosystem. Currently the permissionless blockchain space is mostly speculation with little adoption, mainly due to issues that need to be resolved such as scalability, privacy and regulation with permissionless blockchains, however there are some extremely large Enterprises, Banks, Governments, even Central Banks getting heavily involved and going into production albeit mostly in the permissioned blockchain space where such issues are not a problem. Just as each Blockchain has its advantages and disadvantages, parts of Enterprise applications are better suited to Permissioned blockchains (such as more sensitive parts) and permissionless blockchains suited for a higher degree of immutability, thus a Hybrid model requiring interoperability between permissioned, permissionless as well as existing non-DLT applications is required arguably for many years ahead. Just as with cloud computing where everything didn’t suddenly just move up into the cloud, well over a decade later since the birth of the likes of Amazon AWS, hybrid is still very prevalent today with only recently the likes of central banks, banks, governments discussing moving more sensitive workloads to public clouds such as Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure, Oracle Cloud etc.

SIA, Central Banks, Banks, Trading Venues

Quant Network partnered with SIA, a game changer for mass blockchain adoption by Financial Institutions. SIA is the leading financial network provider in Europe that connects over 570 Banks, Central Banks, Trading Venues (stock exchanges etc) to their infrastructure. They provide a dedicated private network / infrastructure for financial institutions. Every European financial institution will either connect via SIA, in partnership with Colt or via SWIFT (and in many cases they will have connectivity with both) in order to access the Eurosystem Single Market Infrastructure Gateway, granting access to all RTGS, Securities and Instant Payment transactions for Europe.
SIA have integrated Overledger into their private infrastructure covering Europe consisting of 570 supernodes called SIAChain which enables each bank, central Bank, trading venue etc to utilise Overledger for interoperability. Some of the largest deployments of blockchain are happening on SIAChain such as the Spunta project where the entire Italian Banking Sector will be using blockchain and due to go live next month. As well as the “Fideiussioni Digitali” initiative (Digital Sureties) to digitize the management of sureties using blockchain technology with the Central Bank of Italy involved.
Central Bank Digital Currencies are going to play a hugely significant role in the future and there is one central Bank currently testing Overledger and Quant are in discussions with 4 others.
Connecting your blockchain / legacy network to Overledger enables the possibility that it could be used by any of these connected Banks, Central Banks, Trading venues etc in their private network (obviously due to the amount of regulation and critical financial infrastructure the options are going to be limited on what they want to connect).
https://preview.redd.it/ob1vzu7dzoi41.png?width=1336&format=png&auto=webp&s=af9fc79d4749005e60666e3f21cee1a10e9b2275

Oracle

Quant are a Fintech Partner with Oracle, the 2nd largest software company in the world and Oracle are taking Quant’s tech to their clients directly. They have 480,000 clients globally and towards the end of last year Oracle invited Quant to attend Sibos (SWIFT) where they met existing financial services and banking clients and introduced to new ones. By connecting to Overledger this also enables your solution to potentially be used by those 480,000 of Oracle’s global clients.
https://preview.redd.it/rgo9n1ydzoi41.png?width=1220&format=png&auto=webp&s=2521b5968cfb2d8533da0963d3f838b9f518faa5

SIMBA Chain

SIMBA Chain is a cloud-based, smart-contract-as-a-service (SCaaS) platform, enabling users across a variety of skill sets to implement dapps (decentralized applications). The easy-to-use platform is tailored for users, developers, government, and enterprises to quickly deploy blockchain dapps for their enterprise. SIMBA Chain are developing on Quant’s Overledger Blockchain OS to allow them to deploy DAPPs across multiple connected blockchains.
SIMBA Chain have recently been awared a $9.5 million contract with the US Navy, they are also working with the US Air Force. They have a thriving ecosystem with over 1100 Organizations and 650+ Applications developed. Partners include Microsoft, Government Blockchain Association, Air Force Research Laboratory, Caterpillar, SAP and EY. Recently they also integrated Unity 3D plugin for Gaming to enable owning, storing, and managing all personal gaming assets across a variety of blockchains.
These are just a few of the companies that Quant have partnered with directly, but the ecosystem for Overledger Network is the Network of Networks. Every connected blockchain (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple (XRPL), EOS, Stellar, IOTA, DAG, R3’s Corda, Hyperledger Fabric, JP Morgan’s Quorum and other Permissioned Variants of Ethereum) and their associated partners / applications built on them have the ability to connect and interoperate with the other blockchains connected as well as non-DLT networks such as existing payment rails like SWIFT, Faster Payments, SEPA etc. This Network of Network’s effects will grow exponentially as more and more join the ecosystem.
https://preview.redd.it/fd1m5uvezoi41.png?width=590&format=png&auto=webp&s=99c5b1893d851ba1effe7b5e73480c27f3f7973e

Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain

Quant Network are also developing the ability to allow developers to build MAPPs that integrate directly with the internet as well as blockchain data. They will enable this via creating a new IP address for blockchains which they are calling Quant IP which will enable traffic to be routed from an IP connection from the Internet through Overledger to the connected blockchains.
Another Quant product called Seeq is a distributed search engine that is able to search and retrieve data from multiple blockchains and display them via html directly from the blockchain. More details will be released about Seeq later this year.
Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain will allow websites to be natively created and served directly from blockchains, without the need to have, run and maintain web servers, web services, SSL certificates etc and all running in a completely trusted, extremely resilient / tamperproof environment. The implications of this are enormous and more details will be released by the team later on this exciting prospect. By connecting your blockchain to Overledger you will also be able to benefit from this.

Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Instead of the current mentality of having the main focus for many projects of listing on exchanges for vast sums of money, why not spend a little time (connectors can be created in as little as a week of development and don’t necessarily even need to be created by the team themselves) and make your blockchain / non-DLT application available to be used by all existing enterprises / members. Not only that but if you also run an Overledger Gateway connecting your blockchain node you also benefit from the transaction fees of the traffic going to it. The connectors are open source and completely free to connect and now with the standardisation of Objects in the recent SDK update the foundations are in place for the launch of Overledger Network with an ETA of Q2 2020. If you would like your favourite blockchain project to interoperate and be part of the ecosystem to further adoption then make the relevant people aware and keep an eye out for further details released in the future.

https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/the-network-of-networks-scalable-interoperability-to-unleash-the-true-potential-of-blockchain-c54e7d373d2d

Thanks to community member Ghost of St. Miklos for contributing the section about regulation as well as Sonic for proofreading.
You can find more about Overledger Network as well as the token utility — here and community member David W. wrote an excellent article “A deeper look into the Quant Network Utility Token (QNT) valuation dynamics and fundamentals”
What is a blockchain operating system and what are the benefits? Introducing Overledger from Quant Network.
Wall Street 2.0: How Blockchain will revolutionise Wall Street and a closer look at Quant Network’s Partnership with AX Trading
Large Enterprise Adoption of Blockchain is happening, enabled by Quant Network’s Overledger
As well as an 8 Part Series taking an indepth look at Overledger starting with Part 1
submitted by xSeq22x to QuantNetwork [link] [comments]

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submitted by Hosting_Ultraso1 to u/Hosting_Ultraso1 [link] [comments]

The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain

The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain
There is not going to be one blockchain to rule them all, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Interoperability is key to unlocking the true potential of blockchain, where it will have a profound effect across all industries, creating a secure, trusted and hyper-connected world.
The rise of The Networks of Networks, interconnecting all DLT Networks, existing off-chain networks and even the Internet itself. Where true, scalable interoperability can be achieved without requiring connected chains to fork their code and imposing limitations, without the overhead, bottleneck and single point of failure of adding another blockchain in the middle. Where it will be quick, easy and free to participate.
It’s time to stop the childish tribalism that’s plagued this space for so long and realise the bigger picture. Tribes fighting amongst themselves over a tiny insignificant island where there is a whole world out there to conquer if they work together. A rising tide lifts all boats and with the birth of The Network of Networks all connected projects can benefit from the efforts of each other, to usher in Mass adoption of Blockchain.
https://preview.redd.it/m90f8021woi41.png?width=683&format=png&auto=webp&s=2b0feff5cd976d80472cbdc6f9694aaa76ba0b3f
In this article I will discuss the foundations that are being laid in preparation for the release of Overledger Network, The Network of Networks to make all of this possible and to unleash the true potential of blockchain with a secure, hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Table of Contents:
  1. Overledger SDK Update
  2. Standards
  3. Security
  4. Regulation
  5. Overledger Network
  6. The Five Ingredients of Interoperability
  7. Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger
  8. Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain
  9. Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Overledger SDK Update

Quant have just released their Overledger SDK update which has enabled standardisation of objects to abstract and simplify how to interact with different types of blockchains (UXTO and Account-based) in a common model. As well as the ability to directly deploy, invoke and query smart contracts directly through Overledger. I strongly recommend reading the teams Overledger SDK Update which explains it in more detail and includes example use cases of how Overledger is being used and the benefits it brings. Dr Luke Riley also did a fantastic job providing an in-depth demo of the Overledger SDK Update via Video as well.
https://youtu.be/PbpaZpe4mTQ

“This update sets the foundations to build the ecosystem for Overleger Network, allowing stakeholders other than Quant to write any type (DLT and non-DLT) Overledger connectors and sets up the ecosystem with multiple entry points for Overledger Gateways. These updates open up the integration capabilities of Overledger to 3rd parties and create the foundations for the Overledger Network”

Standards

“Trusted standards mean that industry doesn’t need to reinvent the wheel, that innovations will be compatible and work with existing technology, and that products and services will be trusted too. Governments use standards as trusted solutions to complement regulation, and they give peace of mind to consumers who know they are not putting themselves or their families at risk.” — Acting ISO Secretary-General Kevin McKinley
The foundations need to align with internationally recognised standards as they play a crucial role in ensuring interoperability with new and existing technology and validates a product meets the best practices / regulation required to ensure Enterprises remains in compliance. CEO of Quant, Gilbert Verdian, founded the ISO TC 307 standard covering blockchain as a whole, which 56 countries are working towards today.
Countries involved with ISO TC 307 — https://www.iso.org/committee/6266604.html?view=participation
Gilbert Verdian is the chairman for the ISO TC 307 working group for interoperability of blockchain and distributed ledger technology systems as well as being chairman for Blockchain and Distributed Ledger Technology for BSI (British Standards Institution) which represent the UK and includes companies such as Quant, IBM, Microsoft, HSBC, BAE Systems, Huawei as well as a number of UK Government bodies such as BEIS — Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, Defence Science and Technology and the National Cyber Security Centre.
The standardisation updates to the Overledger SDK aligns with the work in ISO TC 307 and academic work from Dr Paolo Tasca and Dr Claudio Tessone to provide users with a clear distributed ledger data standard. This will enable everyone to easily create connectors in a standard way, facilitating interoperability with all of the connected blockchains / non-DLT networks that are already connected to Overledger through Overledger Gateways.

Security

Cybersecurity is in Quant’s DNA. The team have a rich heritage of working for Governments, banks and industry for over 20 years protecting organisations and people from security threats. Before Quant, Gilbert Verdian was the Chief Information Security Officer for Vocalink (Mastercard) where he was in charge of security for the entire payments infrastructure in the UK (£6 Trillion per year).
Gilbert has led a team determined to take security to another level, protecting a critical part of the UK’s infrastructure, protecting UK citizens and businesses from fraud and risk and, by extension, allowing them to live as they want to. Under Gilbert’s guidance, Vocalink security is not merely best-in-class, but setting a new standard. — https://connect.vocalink.com/2017/july/a-winning-streak/
In addition to Quant being selected as a Guarantor for Pay.UK, Gilbert has also been appointed to the Cybersecurity Advisory Board (Pay.UK is the UK’s leading retail payments authority and runs the UK’s retail payments operations, which includes Bacs, Faster Payments and Cheques.)
The pillars of security are Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability. As such, they have used their experience in running payment and financial infrastructure and critical national infrastructure for nations and embedded these principles into every aspect of Overledger.

Regulation

Regulation is playing an ever increasing role for blockchain. Standards and Security naturally complement and help define regulation. The verticals Quant are involved in with regards to regulation span the globe. Gilbert helped shape the conversation about consumer data protection rights during his time as CISO of NSW Health, and is continuing to serve as a cornerstone for policy within the adoption of blockchain in public infrastructure. Quant serves as a founding member of INATBA (The International Association of Trusted Blockchain Applications), which is the formal governing body of the European Blockchain Partnership, all of which is overseen in Brussels by the EU. More locally, Gilbert and team are in consistent contact with the House of Lords within the UK, and advises the FCA in matters regarding cryptoassets.
https://preview.redd.it/oqdtejxpwoi41.png?width=735&format=png&auto=webp&s=874278a25adf7ed76f2c0d78a78898bc904e1780
As recently seen in the SDK update, Overledger can serve as a key component of automatic compliance of governance bodies’ financial regulation, shown here by an Overledger instance reporting to the BoE’s Prudential Regulation Authority. Project BARAC, stewarded by University College London, is a project examining the impact Automatic Regulation as administered by Blockchain can have on the Federal Government. Most notably, the FCA and R3, the developers of Corda, are involved here. Gilbert’s recent engagements with the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston also seem to revolve around this very topic, with the Boston Fed pilot-testing a Supervisor Node for automatic regulatory compliance. While at P2PFISY 2019, it was noted by Gilbert that Raphael Auer’s “Regulation Automata” aligns very well with the vision of Overledger, with Paolo Tasca, former CSO of Quant, more recently co-hosting a recent blockchain panel with him. Raphael’s ideas will most likely be taken into consideration by the BIS, as they recently announced a trial of a 6 central banks collaboration centered around exploring CBDC, and are in the early stages of installing Innovation Hubs in Hong Kong, Switzerland, and Singapore.
Gilbert Verdian with Guy Dietrich (Managing Director at Rockefeller Capital who is also on the Board at Quant) attending a meeting with the Financial Conduct Authority

Overledger Network

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The Overledger Network is a network of networks, which allows enterprise and communities stakeholders to access and participate in a growing hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Enterprises, banks, central banks, trading venues, etc will be able to host their own secure dedicated gateways, enabling secure connectivity to permissioned networks, permissionless networks, ecosystems, consortia and other distributed technologies. Community members will also be able to run an Overledger gateway to further enhance the scalability, decentralisation and optimise network latency, providing enterprises, developers and users choice to use the closest gateway when accessing permissionless blockchains. The Overledger gateways will create a scalable p2p network that shares the transaction and volume between participants and chooses the closest or largest node to transact with.
As per the example use case in the recent update a Bank can run an Overledger Gateway to provide access to the various consortiums hosted on a variety of blockchains including Corda, Hyperledger Fabric and JP Morgan’s Quorum as well as access to the legacy / non-DLT platforms. Should they want to utilise a public blockchain as well in a hybrid scenario then they also have the option of using a Overledger Gateway hosted by a community member.
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The Overledger Gateways contain several layers which we will explore some of their features below:

Overledger Operating System

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Overledger allows connection to any blockchain / DAG as well as easily integrating with existing non-DLT environments. It does this without adding the overhead of yet another blockchain / consensus in the middle, ensuring that it’s scalable and doesn’t contain a single point of failure. Nor does it require the connected blockchains to fork their code to integrate and place restrictions on what can be implemented going forward. All of this is done in a secure, trustless manner where transactions are signed and encrypted client side so the contents can’t be viewed / modified as they pass through Overledger. It currently connects all of the leading permissioned and permissionless blockchains used by enterprises today. This article explains the differences between other interoperability solutions and the benefits of Quant’s approach

The Five Ingredients of Interoperability:

Recently there was an interoperability webinar with Fintech connect with speakers such as R3’s CTO Richard Gendal Brown, along with representatives from the Bank of England, Deutsche Boerse, Nasdaq, ArchaxEx and SwissRe. Richard Gendal Brown from R3 wrote about the Five key Ingredients of Interoperability:
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  1. INTEGRATE with existing business systems — Businesses aren’t going to replace their existing applications for new blockchain ones, they need to integrate with their existing systems.
  2. INITIATE Payments on existing rails or blockchain rails — Needs to be able to make a payment / settlement using a wide variety of existing payment rails (off chain) as well as blockchain rails, ensuring delivery vs payment can be achieved with certainty that they have happened.
  3. INTERCHAIN applications and smart contracts that can be deployed / executed across protocols — Enabling a solution built on Corda such as Marco Polo to easily connect to a solution on another platform such as Vakt on Ethereum or CargoSmart on Hyperledger Fabric etc
  4. INTRACHAIN applications that benefit from value add of same underlying protocol — What happens when networks such as Marco Polo and Contour both running on Corda want to interoperate and the additional value and benefit that can be achieved.
  5. INTERCHANGE applications to switch platforms — What happens if you want to interchange one platform for another. Can you achieve that holy grail of interoperability by being able to be completely agnostic to the underlying platform?
Overledger meets all of these key ingredients in performing interoperability. Overledger enables existing business systems to benefit from blockchain connectivity by adding as little as 3 lines of code to their existing applications. No need to completely rewrite / replace their existing systems and all done in the most common programming languages such as Java and JavaScript.
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At QuantX in December they announced Overledger Interchange which enables settlement on a variety of existing non-dlt payment rails such as Faster Payments, BACS, CHAPS, SEPA, SWIFT as well as on DLT payment rails such as with Central Bank Digital Currencies, Stablecoins and XRP. It also facilitates Cross Chain Atomic Swaps using Hash Time Locked Contracts ensuring Delivery vs Payment is achieved. Interchange is at the centre of the discussions Quant has had with traditional exchanges in capital markets and central banks and is a technology financial services have been missing and was built it address client needs.
Overledger enables interoperability within the same ecosystem such as Corda DAPP to another Corda DAPP etc as well as interoperability between any of the connected permissionless and permissioned blockchains.
Quants blockchain agnostic Operating System enables users to benefit from using the best features from different chains in combination and migrate between them, preventing Vendor or Tech Lock in without having to completely rewrite existing applications, achieving the holy grail of interoperability. It enables developers to quickly test a variety of connected blockchains in a sandbox environment to see which is best suited for their requirements, starting with just 3 lines of code.

Transactions Services Layer

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The Transaction Services layer handles more complex features of Overledger. Allowing for applications to request services such as cross-chain atomic swaps, treaty contracts (Multi Chain Smart Contracts as well as enabling smart contract functionality even on blockchains that don’t support smart contracts natively such as Bitcoin) and transaction brokering (using heuristic analysis to determine which method is the fastest / cheapest out of the various payment rails)

Financial Services Layer

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Financial services features can be called upon by participants and applications to use crosschain and cross-platform. Financial Services specific use cases can use the features in Overledger to operate across networks. This layer provides enhanced privacy and security to regulated entities and institutions who require additional controls to maintain compliance to regulation and security policy. The features of Zero-knowledge Proof and privacy can be mandated for all transactions.

Channels Layer

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Channels provide interoperability of services related to digital assets, payments and tokenisation. The Overledger Network allows for participants to transfer interoperate enterprise and institutional issued tokens and assets. Connect to many existing payment rails such as SWIFT, SEPA, Faster Payments etc.
Overledger Network — Network of Networks

Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger

The connectors to Overledger which grant access to Overledger Network will be open source and soon be made available, allowing for anyone to create a connector and benefit from being part of the ecosystem. Currently the permissionless blockchain space is mostly speculation with little adoption, mainly due to issues that need to be resolved such as scalability, privacy and regulation with permissionless blockchains, however there are some extremely large Enterprises, Banks, Governments, even Central Banks getting heavily involved and going into production albeit mostly in the permissioned blockchain space where such issues are not a problem. Just as each Blockchain has its advantages and disadvantages, parts of Enterprise applications are better suited to Permissioned blockchains (such as more sensitive parts) and permissionless blockchains suited for a higher degree of immutability, thus a Hybrid model requiring interoperability between permissioned, permissionless as well as existing non-DLT applications is required arguably for many years ahead. Just as with cloud computing where everything didn’t suddenly just move up into the cloud, well over a decade later since the birth of the likes of Amazon AWS, hybrid is still very prevalent today with only recently the likes of central banks, banks, governments discussing moving more sensitive workloads to public clouds such as Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure, Oracle Cloud etc.

SIA, Central Banks, Banks, Trading Venues

Quant Network partnered with SIA, a game changer for mass blockchain adoption by Financial Institutions. SIA is the leading financial network provider in Europe that connects over 570 Banks, Central Banks, Trading Venues (stock exchanges etc) to their infrastructure. They provide a dedicated private network / infrastructure for financial institutions. Every European financial institution will either connect via SIA, in partnership with Colt or via SWIFT (and in many cases they will have connectivity with both) in order to access the Eurosystem Single Market Infrastructure Gateway, granting access to all RTGS, Securities and Instant Payment transactions for Europe.
SIA have integrated Overledger into their private infrastructure covering Europe consisting of 570 supernodes called SIAChain which enables each bank, central Bank, trading venue etc to utilise Overledger for interoperability. Some of the largest deployments of blockchain are happening on SIAChain such as the Spunta project where the entire Italian Banking Sector will be using blockchain and due to go live next month. As well as the “Fideiussioni Digitali” initiative (Digital Sureties) to digitize the management of sureties using blockchain technology with the Central Bank of Italy involved.
Central Bank Digital Currencies are going to play a hugely significant role in the future and there is one central Bank currently testing Overledger and Quant are in discussions with 4 others.
Connecting your blockchain / legacy network to Overledger enables the possibility that it could be used by any of these connected Banks, Central Banks, Trading venues etc in their private network (obviously due to the amount of regulation and critical financial infrastructure the options are going to be limited on what they want to connect).
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Oracle

Quant are a Fintech Partner with Oracle, the 2nd largest software company in the world and Oracle are taking Quant’s tech to their clients directly. They have 480,000 clients globally and towards the end of last year Oracle invited Quant to attend Sibos (SWIFT) where they met existing financial services and banking clients and introduced to new ones. By connecting to Overledger this also enables your solution to potentially be used by those 480,000 of Oracle’s global clients.

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SIMBA Chain

SIMBA Chain is a cloud-based, smart-contract-as-a-service (SCaaS) platform, enabling users across a variety of skill sets to implement dapps (decentralized applications). The easy-to-use platform is tailored for users, developers, government, and enterprises to quickly deploy blockchain dapps for their enterprise. SIMBA Chain are developing on Quant’s Overledger Blockchain OS to allow them to deploy DAPPs across multiple connected blockchains.
SIMBA Chain have recently been awared a $9.5 million contract with the US Navy, they are also working with the US Air Force. They have a thriving ecosystem with over 1100 Organizations and 650+ Applications developed. Partners include Microsoft, Government Blockchain Association, Air Force Research Laboratory, Caterpillar, SAP and EY. Recently they also integrated Unity 3D plugin for Gaming to enable owning, storing, and managing all personal gaming assets across a variety of blockchains.
These are just a few of the companies that Quant have partnered with directly, but the ecosystem for Overledger Network is the Network of Networks. Every connected blockchain (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple (XRPL), EOS, Stellar, IOTA, DAG, R3’s Corda, Hyperledger Fabric, JP Morgan’s Quorum and other Permissioned Variants of Ethereum) and their associated partners / applications built on them have the ability to connect and interoperate with the other blockchains connected as well as non-DLT networks such as existing payment rails like SWIFT, Faster Payments, SEPA etc. This Network of Network’s effects will grow exponentially as more and more join the ecosystem.

https://preview.redd.it/x5t16hazxoi41.png?width=590&format=png&auto=webp&s=71cd81b0781b082fa6c8a4470ffc9325d08ed0f5

Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain

Quant Network are also developing the ability to allow developers to build MAPPs that integrate directly with the internet as well as blockchain data. They will enable this via creating a new IP address for blockchains which they are calling Quant IP which will enable traffic to be routed from an IP connection from the Internet through Overledger to the connected blockchains.
Another Quant product called Seeq is a distributed search engine that is able to search and retrieve data from multiple blockchains and display them via html directly from the blockchain. More details will be released about Seeq later this year.
Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain will allow websites to be natively created and served directly from blockchains, without the need to have, run and maintain web servers, web services, SSL certificates etc and all running in a completely trusted, extremely resilient / tamperproof environment. The implications of this are enormous and more details will be released by the team later on this exciting prospect. By connecting your blockchain to Overledger you will also be able to benefit from this.

Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Instead of the current mentality of having the main focus for many projects of listing on exchanges for vast sums of money, why not spend a little time (connectors can be created in as little as a week of development and don’t necessarily even need to be created by the team themselves) and make your blockchain / non-DLT application available to be used by all existing enterprises / members. Not only that but if you also run an Overledger Gateway connecting your blockchain node you also benefit from the transaction fees of the traffic going to it. The connectors are open source and completely free to connect and now with the standardisation of Objects in the recent SDK update the foundations are in place for the launch of Overledger Network with an ETA of Q2 2020. If you would like your favourite blockchain project to interoperate and be part of the ecosystem to further adoption then make the relevant people aware and keep an eye out for further details released in the future.

https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/the-network-of-networks-scalable-interoperability-to-unleash-the-true-potential-of-blockchain-c54e7d373d2d

Thanks to community member Ghost of St. Miklos for contributing the section about regulation as well as Sonic for proofreading.
You can find more about Overledger Network as well as the token utility — here and community member David W. wrote an excellent article “A deeper look into the Quant Network Utility Token (QNT) valuation dynamics and fundamentals”
What is a blockchain operating system and what are the benefits? Introducing Overledger from Quant Network.
Wall Street 2.0: How Blockchain will revolutionise Wall Street and a closer look at Quant Network’s Partnership with AX Trading
Large Enterprise Adoption of Blockchain is happening, enabled by Quant Network’s Overledger
As well as an 8 Part Series taking an indepth look at Overledger starting with Part 1
submitted by xSeq22x to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Numbers on the screen or how digital payment systems make the market fair?

Numbers on the screen or how digital payment systems make the market fair?

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Continuing the trend of practicality characteristic of the XXI century, paper money is gradually disappearing from our lives, giving way to more practical digital storage. However, the digitized banking that we now use every day is still far from perfect. For starters, it is completely controlled by third parties. No one owns the numbers they see on the screen — control is entirely owned by third parties, such as banks.
Banks create money out of thin air, and credit is a prime example of this. Money is no longer printed when someone takes out an overdraft or mortgage-it is simply created out of nothing. Moreover, these banks charge disproportionately high fees for the services they provide, and these services are outdated and impractical today.
For example, it is impractical to pay a Commission to spend your money abroad, as it is impractical to wait a few days to verify the transfer of a small amount from You to your relative. All this makes no sense in the interconnected and instantaneous world in which We live today.
Thus, the monetary system has ceased to be practical, it is replaced by a higher form of value storage. In this particular case, it is replaced by a faster and safer system that eliminates expensive operations and gives control to the person.
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Money that you have in your Bank account can be considered a virtual currency since it does not have a physical form and exists only in the Bank book. If they lose the book, your money will simply disappear. These are just numbers that you see on the screen. The numbers are stored on the hard drives of Bank servers.

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Do you open a regular app and think you have money? They are just bytes of the computer system. Today’s global payment infrastructure moves money from one payment system to another through a series of internal Deposit transfers between financial institutions. Since these transfers occur in different systems with a low level of coordination, the calculation of funds is slow, often 3–5 days, capturing liquidity.

How do payments work?

When you make a money transfer, for example, from your Bank card to the Bank card of a friend or acquaintance, you see an instant transfer, so to speak, moving numbers from you to the Recipient. For the user, the transfer is carried out instantly, and the exchange of obligations between the participants of the process takes place within 3–7 days, the User does not know about it and hardly ever thinks about it.

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When you make a payment at a supermarket or any other point of sale, at the time of payment, information from the POS-terminal is sent to the acquiring Bank — then the acquiring Bank sends a request that passes through the payment system (Visa or MasterCard) and then transmitted to Your Bank, which confirms the operation. At this point, there is no write-off of funds. The funds are temporarily held, and the actual withdrawal will take place within a few days, the maximum processing time is up to 30 days.
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Currency transactions and payments abroad

You may have noticed that after making a transaction in a different currency, such as yen or dirhams, or any other currency that differs from the currency of your account or buying an item abroad, the amount charged may differ from the amount that was reflected immediately after payment.

Why is this happening?

As soon As you have made a transaction with Your Bank card — the local Bank transfers the information to the payment system: Visa or MasterCard — the payment system converts the currency used into the billing currency.
Billing currency — the currency that will be used for payment with the payment system by your Bank that issued the card. For the US, the billing currency is the dollar, in Europe — the Euro.
The billing currency may also differ depending on the issuing Bank — the Bank that issued your debit card. For example, some banks use the billing currency — Euro when making payments with MasterCard cards in the United States, which will lead to additional costs when converting euros into dollars.
If the payment is in other currencies, the payment scheme will become more complicated and, accordingly, its cost will be more expensive. The transfer rate from one settlement currency to another is set by the payment system: Visa and MasterCard.
If the currency of your Bankcard is the same as the currency of the payment system, the payment will take place without additional operations. For example, You have a dollar card, you make a payment in dollars in the United States, and if you make a payment with a dollar card in Europe, your Bank will convert the amount at its exchange rate, which will lead to additional costs. There are exceptions, some European banks can use dollars for settlements, but this is more an exception than a rule.
Also, if, for example, you pay for purchases in China using a Bank card in euros, then double conversion is inevitable.
Thus, payment in dollars is universal all over the world, except for the European Union countries. The dollar is a global currency and is therefore often used for binding in international settlements.
Now we understand that due to differences in the account currency and the differences in the VISA or MasterCard payment system, additional conversions may occur, which will lead to additional bank fees. as a result, the actual payment amount will differ from the amount debited from your card.
In addition to paying for conversion in the payment system and paying for currency conversion in your Bank, some banks charge an additional fee for conducting a cross-border transaction.

Where do we lose money when making debit card payments?


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  1. Currency conversion by the payment system;
  2. Euro-Dollar, or in the case of processing payment via MasterCard in Turkey, Turkish lira-Euro and additional conversion on the side of the issuing Bank (your Bank) Euro — Dollar.
  3. Currency conversion by an acquiring bank;
  4. The difference between the exchange rate on the purchase date and the write-off date. We purchased at a rate of 0.91 euros per dollar, and the write-off occurred at a rate of 0.94 euros per dollar.
  5. A large number of currency conversions.
  6. The greater the number of them, the more we will lose when buying. For example, when paying in the UAE or China, buying a product for the local currency, we understand that the number of conversions increases several times.
If we touch on the topic of international translations, we will encounter additional nuances:
  • This is the payment processing time. International payments can be processed within 3–5 days, as mentioned above, which in our dynamic time — it interferes with the comfortable use of the system.
  • Restrictions on the amounts;
  • Possible requirements for certain documentation for payment confirmation;
  • Additional fees and commissions, sometimes hidden fees.
It is not always possible to make a transfer quickly and when necessary due to these restrictions. All this confirms the complexity of the operations and additional commissions that the user pays.

Сryptocurrency exchanges

And now back to the numbers on the screen, this topic affects not only banks but also centralized cryptocurrency exchanges:
  • You top up your Deposit on the exchange in cryptocurrency-then you use numbers inside the exchange, and real funds are most often stored on “cold storage” for which administrators or other responsible persons are responsible.
  • Only when you make a withdrawal from the exchange to your wallet-you are sent real funds (tokens or cryptocurrency).
The same applies to centralized applications and online services that deal with cryptocurrencies:
There are many services, both online and apps, that are centralized, regardless of what they will be called: Bitcoin wallet or bitcoin exchange. This means that when you add funds to an account in such a wallet, the funds are stored on the developecompany’s side. In simple words, all your funds are stored in the wallets of the system’s creators.
If you use a centralized app, you have a risk of losing funds. Although the application is called cryptocurrency, it does not affect its main principles — it is decentralization.
In other words, using systems where there is a Central authority, especially in the cryptocurrency market — the risk increases, so we recommend using decentralized systems for storing currency to reduce risks to a minimum.
Decentralization is the process of redistributing, dispersing functions, forces, power, people, or things from a Central location or governing body. Centralization is a condition in which the right to make the most important decisions remains with the highest levels of management.

Peer-to-peer payment systems

The opposite and standard of security and independence are peer-to-peer payment systems. Using the application-level network Protocol, clients running on multiple computers connect to form a peer-to-peer network.

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There are no dedicated servers in such a network, and each node is both a client and performs server functions. In contrast to the client-server architecture, this organization allows you to maintain the network operability with any number and any combination of available nodes. All nodes are members of the network.

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Tkeycoin is a decentralized peer-to-peer payment system based on p2p principles and the concept of electronic cash. P2P technology is a fairer means of mutual settlements between users and companies around the world. Modern payment systems are imperfect and may depend on the will of high-ranking officials.
The main goal of Tkeycoin is to create universal products that will make financial transactions more accessible, profitable and secure.

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What do decentralized systems protect against?

Using decentralized tools, for example, a local Tkeycoin wallet or a Multi-currency blockchain tkeyspace wallet — Your funds belong only to You and only You can use them, which eliminates the risks of third-party bankruptcy, and such a decentralized architecture can also protect against natural disasters. Given that there is no central server that can be damaged in a natural disaster, the system can work even if there are 2 nodes.

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In addition to force majeure situations, you protect your funds from theft and any sanctions from third parties-in our time, this is very important. The owner of Tkeycoin does not need Bank branches, does not need additional verifications, and does not need permission to use, transfer, or even transport Tkeycoin. You can easily carry $1 million worth of Tkeycoin in your pocket and even in theory not know any troubles.

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Besides, it is extremely convenient and safe to store even multibillion-dollar capital in Tkeycoin. Imagine that you have a lot, a lot of money, and you need a safe place to store it. Where do you apply? Of course, the Swiss Bank, Yes, but it can easily freeze your accounts and you can easily lose your savings. In recent years, many banks are actively fighting against gray non-cash funds (including offshore ones), and every month more and more legal proceedings are organized on this basis.

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The fact is that serious money, for the most part, has a gray tinge, and only a tiny fraction of billions and millions are clean for the law. That is why their owners are often called to court, subjected to pressure, forced to leave the country, and so on. If your money is stored in Tkeycoin, you will not be subjected to such pressure and will avoid the lion’s share of troubles that usually accompany accounts with many zeros.
Using peer-to-peer systems — you will not be called by a Bank Manager and require documents or a fraudster who asks for Your card number and SMS for confirmation. This is simply not the case, wallets are encrypted, and using different addresses guarantees privacy.
As for fees for transfers, there are no Visa or Mastercard payment systems, as well as additional fees that we discussed above.

How are payments made in the Tkeycoin peer-to-peer payment system?


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As soon as you sign a transaction, it is sent to the blockchain and the miners are engaged in its confirmation, for which they take a symbolic Commission. Let’s look at an example, the key rate is $1, the transfer fee will be 0.00001970 TKEY or 0.00000174 TKEY.
0.00001970 TKEY=$0.00001970 0.00000174 TKEY=$0.00000174
Accordingly, commissions are almost zero. In Europe, on average, you will pay $15–20 for a small Bank transfer.
For example, now sending 1 million dollars to BTC, You will pay a Commission in the area of ≈3–8 dollars. Just think, 1 million dollars, without restrictions, risks, and sanctions, and most importantly, the transaction will be the available day today, and you paid an average of ≈5 dollars for the transfer.

Transactions in the Tkeycoin blockchain

Now let’s touch on the topic of how a transaction in the blockchain goes. Once you have sent a transaction, it will be available to the Recipient. The transaction takes place instantly and the User sees not” numbers on the screen”, but real funds-cryptocurrency. This is very convenient when you make any transactions and the Recipient needs to make sure that the payment came.
In the full node-there is a choice of confirmation blocks — this is the amount after which you can use the received cryptocurrency. When sending, you can select the number of confirmations:
• 2 blocks≈10 minutes • 4 block≈40 minutes • 6 blocks≈60 minutes • 12 blocks≈120 minutes • 24 blocks≈4 hours • 48 blocks≈8 hours • 144 blocks≈24 hours • 504 blocks≈3 days • 1008 blocks≈7 days
As we can see, you can also set a weekly confirmation if necessary. The minimum recommended number is 3 blocks. by default, the full node (local wallet) has 6 blocks installed. The presence of this number of confirmations ensures that Your block will not be forged and will be accepted by the network.
Each new transaction that receives network approval is sent to mempool, where it waits for miners to confirm it. When a miner takes a transaction to include it in the next block, it automatically receives the first confirmation.

Generating blocks in the TKEY network

A block in the TKEY network is generated within 6–10 minutes. the network automatically corrects the complexity and time of block formation. Thousands of transactions or a single transaction can be placed in a block.

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Transactions work faster in the TKEYSPACE app because we have already enabled new algorithms and this is now the fastest and most convenient way to exchange various digital currencies.

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Anyway, using the full node is also one of the safest ways to store and send Tkeycoin cryptocurrency, and most importantly, the full node stores a full copy of the entire blockchain, which benefits the network and provides protection from information forgery.
The more popular the project becomes, the more load is placed on the network itself. For example, 10,000 transactions passed in one block that was processed quickly, while the other 10–20 transactions in another block hung for a longer time, so temporary “pits” may appear. To deal with them, we are working on implementing additional chains-separate chains that are created for cross-transactions, which ensures fast payments under heavy load.
For the global system — we get a shipment around the world in 6–10 minutes, in cross-chains in 10 seconds. In comparison with the global payment system, which processes cross — border payments within 3–5 days, this is a huge advantage. If we add liquidity to this, we will get a perfect payment system.
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Also, you should not forget that if you did not sync with the network and sent a transaction, the transaction may hang in its memory pool and you will have to perform several actions to solve this situation. Here we must understand that syncing with the network is an important point because if you have a connection failure in the Internet Bank, the payment will also not be processed. After all, it will not be sent to a specialist for confirmation.
If you are currently experiencing any delays with transactions, this is due to the transition of CPU mining to GPU, as soon as miners switch to new mining methods, the confirmation of blocks will be consistently fast.
In conclusion: blockchain is a new technology and many terms, concepts and how it all works are still difficult for many to understand and this is normal from innovation.
In many countries, the word cryptocurrency and blockchain are synonymous and no one wants to understand the reality, most people believe that if the blockchain, it means it is related to trading on the cryptocurrency exchange. No one thinks about the real usefulness of certain solutions that will become commonplace for Us in the future.
For example, the Internet banking system dates back to the ’80s of the last century, when the Home Banking system was created in the United States. This system allowed depositors to check their accounts by connecting to the Bank’s computer via their phone. In the future, as the Internet and Internet technologies develop, banks are beginning to introduce systems that allow depositors to get information about their accounts via the Internet. For the first time, the service of transferring funds from accounts was introduced in 1994 in the United States by the Stanford Federal Credit Union, and in 1995 the first virtual Bank was created — Security First Network Bank. But, to the disappointment of the founders of the project, it failed because of strong distrust from potential customers, who, at that time, did not trust such an innovation.
Only in 2001, Bank of America became the first among all banks that provide e-banking services, the whole user base for this service exceeded 2 million customers. At that time, this figure was about 20 % of all Bank customers. And in October of the same year, 2001, and the same Bank of America took the bar in 3 million money transfers made using online banking services for a total amount of more than 1 billion US dollars. Currently, in Western Europe and America, more than 50% of the entire adult population uses e-banking services, and this figure reaches 90% among adult Internet users.
Life changes, and in the bustle of everyday work — we do not even notice how quickly all processes change.
We are experiencing a technological revolution that is inevitable.

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submitted by tkeycoin to Tkeycoin_Official [link] [comments]

Best VPN Reddit 2019

Best VPN Reddit 2019

Invite to the Reddit 2019 Directory of VPN service providers. In this directory site, we're taking a look at a few of the absolute best business VPN provider on the Internet like ExpressVPN, CyberGhost, IPVanish, Hotspot Shield, Private Internet Access and others. Instead of taking a look at the large range of free suppliers, which often have a lot of limits (and dubious loyalties), we are looking at those suppliers who charge a couple of dollars a month, however put your interests first, instead of those of shadowy marketers and sponsors. We've looked at more than 20 elements including variety of server locations, client software, devoted and vibrant IP, bandwidth caps, security, logging, client support and rate.
Let's take a look at each of our suppliers below in a little bit more depth.
ExpressVPN
Number of IP addresses: 30,000
Number of servers: 3,000+.
Number of server locations: 160.
Variety of synchronised connections: 5.
Country/Jurisdiction: British Virgin Islands.
94+ countries.
3 months Free with 1-year strategy.
ExpressVPN likewise uses a 30-day money-back guarantee, and has outstanding procedure assistance. While few will utilize PPTP (unless there specify requirements), the extra support of SSTP and L2TP/IPSec might be welcome to some users.
We like the quality of their setup guides, and the in-depth details in their Frequently Asked Question. The ExpressVPN got points from us for their support of Bitcoin as a payment technique, and their trustworthy and easy-to-use connection kill switch feature.
The company has actually stayed in business because 2009, and has a significant network of fast VPN servers spread throughout 94 nations. Their finest plan is priced at simply $6.67 monthly for an annual plan that includes 3 months complimentary. ExpressVPN's dedication to privacy is a standout feature.
SEE ALL EXPRESSVPN PLANS.
NordVPN.
Number of IP addresses: 5,000.
Variety of servers: 5000+ servers.
Variety of server locations: 61.
Country/Jurisdiction: Panama.
60+ nations.
$ 2.99/ month (75% discount rate) for a 3-year plan.
NordVPN in-depth review and hands-on screening.
NordVPN is among our top-performing VPN companies. They even use a generous simultaneous connection count, with six synchronised connections through their network, where almost everyone else deals five or less.
NordVPN's network isn't as big as some of their competitors, so if you're attempting to obfuscate your tracks, you might want a company with more servers. Otherwise, this business is plainly offering a winning offering.
Their finest plan is 1-year membership strategy: $6.99 ($ 83.88). While their month-to-month price of $11.95 is at the high-end of the spectrum, their annual price of $83.88 is lower than a lot of our competitors. And yes, they also have a full 30-day refund policy. NordVPN likewise provides a dedicated IP choice, for those looking for a different level of VPN connection. They do provide $2.99/ month (75% discount rate) for a 3-year strategy.
SEE ALL NORDVPN PREPARES. cg-22-1.
CyberGhost VPN.
Number of IP addresses: 2,800.
Number of servers: over 3,700 worldwide.
Variety of server locations: 115.
24/7 support action.
$ 2.75/ month (79% discount) for a 3-year plan.
CyberGhost thorough evaluation and hands-on screening.
CyberGhost has actually been around because 2011 and has come out strongly as an advocate of "civil rights, a complimentary society, and an uncensored Internet culture." We truly liked how the company specifically showcases, on their Website, how folks usually prevented from accessing such essential services as Facebook and YouTube can bring those services into their lives by means of a VPN.
The company has strong Linux assistance, supports VPN through routers, and has a solution for the popular Kodi media player. They mark off all the boxes on procedure support and get congratulations for offering a connection kill switch function, in addition to supporting P2P and BitTorrent in most nations.
Still, the few extra dollars deserve it. We liked how the business offers custom-made app security, IPV5 support and DNS, IP, and WebRTC leakage prevention. CyberGhost also picked up points for preserving privacy by not logging connection information.
SEE ALL CYBERGHOST VPN PREPARES.
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IPVanish VPN.
Variety of IP addresses: 40,000+.
Variety of servers: 900.
Number of server locations: 60.
Country/Jurisdiction: United States.
$ 4.87/ month (60% discount) for a 1-year strategy.
A big win for IPVanish is the reality that the business keeps no logs. Absolutely no. We also like the business's stance towards privacy. They even supply support to EFF, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a not-for-profit at the front lines of securing online personal privacy.
An unique feature of IPVanish, and one we're extremely interested by, is the VPN's assistance of Kodi, the open-source media streaming app that was as soon as referred to as XBMC. Any severe media fan has used or constructed Kodi or XBMC into a media player, and the integrated IPVanish Kodi plugin provides access to media worldwide.
At $7.50/ month and $58.49 for a year, they're undoubtedly attempting to move you towards their annual program. We awarded the business congratulations for Bitcoin support, and their money-back guarantee. We're a little disappointed that they just allow a 7-day trial, instead of a full 30-days. The company is generous, with five simultaneous connections. We also liked their connection eliminate switch feature, a must for anyone serious about staying confidential while browsing.
SEE ALL IPVANISH VPN PREPARES.
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PureVPN.
Variety of IP addresses: 300,000.
Variety of servers: 2000.
Variety of server locations: 180.
Country/Jurisdiction: Hong Kong.
$ 3.33/ month (70% discount rate) for a 1-year plan.
PureVPN does not log connection details. We like that they provide a 30-day refund policy. They got perk points because, essential for a few of our readers, PureVPN supports bitcoin payments and you're going like their fast performance.
Also, you can grow with them. If after a long time, you require to scale up to business-level plans, the business has offerings for development. Prices is middle-of-the-road, at $10.95 each month and $35,88 annually.
Finally, we like that PureVPN has both Kodi and a Chromebook solution called out right on their Web page. In addition, PureVPN earns the distinction of being the very first VPN service we've seen to totally implement the GDPR.
SEE ALL PUREVPN PLANS.
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StrongVPN.
Variety of IP addresses: 59,500.
Variety of servers: 689.
Variety of server places: 70.
$ 5.83/ month (42% discount rate) for a 1-year strategy.
StrongVPN blasts onto our favorites list with outstanding facilities and good price efficiency. As with our other favorites, StrongVPN has a strong no-logging policy. Since VPN is all about securing your personal privacy, that's a place the savvy VPN service providers can get points.
Strong likewise picks up congratulations for its large base of IP addresses, which also helps protect your anonymity. They have a strong collection of servers and around the world locations. For those of you who need a devoted IP, you can get one from the company, however you'll require to contact support to get assist setting it up.
Among StrongVPN's greatest strengths is the company's network. They own and operate their entire network infrastructure, which implies they have no externally-dictated limitations on bandwidth or the type of traffic enabled on the network. This gives you the self-confidence that you'll have the ability to power through your work.
StrongVPN's monthly price of $10 is in the middle of the pack, however their yearly cost of $69.99 is amongst the most affordable of our contenders.
SEE ALL STRONGVPN PLANS.
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Norton Secure VPN.
Number of countries: 29.
Variety of servers: 1500.
Variety of server areas: 200.
Country/Jurisdiction: US.
$ 39.99 for the first 12 months.
Symantec, long understood for quality in security items, has a fairly minimal offering in its VPN item. It does not support P2P or BitTorrent, it does not have a kill switch feature, and it does not support Linux, routers or set leading boxes.
On the other hand, it's a VPN product from Symantec, a publicly-traded business with a clearly recorded management team. In many software application classifications, this might not be a notable advantage, but in the VPN world, where most companies have shadowy management and impossible-to-track-down ownership structures, it's revitalizing to understand exactly who we're handling and understand through independent sources (the company's annual filing, the SEC, and analyst reports) that the company is reliable and liable.
SEE ALL NORTON SECURE VPN PLANS.
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Hotspot Guard.
Variety of IP addresses: 50,000.
Number of servers: 2500.
Number of server places: 26.
$ 2.99/ month (77% discount rate) for a 3-year strategy.
HotSpot Shield is an item that has actually had some ups and downs in regards to our editorial protection. Back in 2016, they picked up some really favorable protection based upon founder David Gorodyansky remarks about protecting user personal privacy. Then, in 2017, a personal privacy group implicated the company of spying on user traffic, an accusation the company flatly denies. Lastly, just this year, ZDNet uncovered a flaw in the company's software that exposed users. Thankfully, that was repaired right away.
So what are we to make from HotSpot Guard? Frankly, the debate caused us to drop them from our directory for a while. However they approached us, made a strong case for their ongoing dedication to privacy, and we chose to give them another chance.
Here's the good news. They use one of the very best money-back warranty we have actually seen for VPN services, a complete 45-days. They support Windows, Mac, iOS, and Android, along with plugins for Chrome and Firefox. They also support routers and media players (but not Linux). And, as a reward, they have a connection kill switch feature.
The business does not support P2P or BitTorrent-- and they also don't support the OpenVPN. Every other supplier does, but HotSpot Shield limits its protocol assistance to L2TP/IPSec and something they call Hydra, an enhancement of the transport protocol.
Overall, the company did impress us with their attention to personal privacy. They have actually a released personal privacy canary. They likewise informed us, "We have actually integrated in malware, phishing and spam security. Our dedication to our users is that Hotspot Guard will never ever keep, log, or share your real IP address.".
SEE ALL HOTSPOT GUARD PLANS.
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Conceal My Ass.
Number of IP addresses: 3,106.
Number of servers: 830.
Variety of server locations: 280.
Country/Jurisdiction: UK.
$ 2.99/ month for 3-year strategy.
We have to provide these folks an extra shout-out just for the name of their service. The company has a strong network with an excellent selection of protocols supported. While they have a comprehensive (and really plainly written set of policy documents), the company clearly permits P2P and gushes.
We like how HMA provides assistance on a wide variety of devices consisting of video game consoles. We gave them kudos for bitcoin support, and their outstanding money-back guarantee. They did make us frown a bit since they do log connection data. They also use five synchronised connections.
While their monthly pricing of $11.52 is at the high end of the spectrum, their yearly rates is competitive at $78.66 for a full year.
SEE ALL CONCEAL MY ASS PLANS.
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VyprVPN Solutions.
Variety of IP addresses: 200,000+.
Variety of servers: 700+.
Variety of server locations: 70+.
Country/Jurisdiction: Switzerland.
30-Day Cash Back Guarantee.
$ 2.99/ month for 3-year strategy.
VyprVPN has the largest bank of IP addresses of any of the services we have actually taken a look at. The business provides a wide range of procedures, including its own high-performance Chameleon connection procedure.
We like that the company provides a connection kill switch feature and, for those who require it, there's a choice to get a dedicated IP address. VyprVPN is a standout in their effort to offer privacy, and ward off censorship. When China began its program of deep package VPN assessment, Golden Frog's VyperVPN service added scrambled OpenVPN packets to keep the traffic streaming.
At $9.95 for a month's service, and $80.04 for a year, the service is a good deal.
SEE ALL VYPRVPN PREPARES.
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Personal Web Access.
Variety of IP addresses: N/A.
Variety of servers: 3,252.
Number of server places: 37.
Country/Jurisdiction: United States.
Mentioning rate, if you desire a strong VPN service provider and you want the lowest yearly rate anywhere, Private Web Access is the location to go. At $6.95 a month, their regular monthly charge is the second least expensive of our choices, however at $39.95 per year, Private Internet Access beats even the second most affordable annual price by a complete Jackson (a $20 expense).
The company does not launch details on the variety of IP addresses offered, but at 3,252, their server count is more than any of our other choices.
These folks have been around given that 2010, and do not log anything. They supply a generous five connections, a connection kill switch feature, and some excellent online documentation and security assistance. Our one dissatisfaction is that their refund policy is 7-days rather of 30, however you can definitely get a feel for their exceptional efficiency in the area of a week.
SEE ALL PERSONAL INTERNET ACCESS PREPARES.
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TorGuard.
Variety of IP addresses: N/A.
Number of servers: 1,600.
Variety of server places: 50.
Country/Jurisdiction: United States.
Despite the fact that the business doesn't launch the number of IP addresses it supports, TorGuard didn't disappoint. In addition to standard VPN services, TorGuard uses a wide array of additional services, depending upon your personal privacy requires.
Just like our other favorites, TorGuard keeps no logs whatsoever. They have a full suite of protocol support, so no matter how you want to connect, you can have your choice. We likewise like the active blog site the company keeps. It's relevant and intriguing to anybody with Web security concerns.
While TorGuard only offers a 7-day return policy, it's enough time for you to be able to decide if you're pleased. The monthly rate of $9.99 is practically at the middle of the range, but the yearly fee of $59.99 is a deal compared to practically all our other competitors.
SEE ALL TORGUARD PLANS.
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Buffered VPN.
Variety of IP addresses: 11,000.
Number of servers: 800.
Variety of server locations: 46.
Country/Jurisdiction: Gibraltar.
Buffered VPN doesn't disclose much about the size of its network, however the 30-day refund ensure suggests that you can take their service for a test drive and really get a feel for how well it carries out for you. The business distressed us due to the fact that they do keep some connection information. They cheered us up, though, due to their client support, limitless bandwidth, and generous number of simultaneous sessions permitted.
The company is reasonably new, established in 2013. It's based in Europe, so those who choose an EU-based business might choose Buffered. We like how Buffered has made a strong dedication to Web liberty, and an equally strong dedication to supplying quality customer support.
At $12.99 monthly and $99.00 for a year of service, they do not provide the least costly plan, but we do suggest providing a shot.
SEE ALL BUFFERED VPN PLANS.
goose.
Goose VPN.
Variety of IP addresses: 8.
Variety of servers: 8.
Number of server locations: 39.
I needed to know why Goose VPN was so named. My very first order of business was to connect to the company's co-founder and ask. Geese, I was told, make exceptional guard animals. There are records of guard geese providing the alarm in ancient Rome when the Gauls assaulted. Geese have been utilized to secure an US Air Defense Command base in Germany and a brewery in Scotland.
It's clear that the goose is an ideal mascot for a service that's suggested to guard your digital communications. And so, we have Goose VPN.
Goose VPN has a number of standout features. Initially, you can have a limitless variety of synchronised connections (or gadgets) using the VPN at once. Second, if your bandwidth requirements are 50 GB or less per month, you can register for $2.99/ month, the most inexpensive monthly rate we have actually seen.
If you desire unlimited bandwidth, the company definitely is pushing you towards purchasing a year at a time. Their regular monthly cost for unrestricted bandwidth is a middle-of-the-road $12.99/ month, but if you invest $59.88 for a year's service, you'll find it's the second least expensive by-the-year price of the services we have actually examined.
Goose supplies all the typical clients, including iOS, Android, Mac, and Windows, and adds assistance for routers, Android TELEVISION, and Linux. They are dealing with a kill switch function, which may even be up and running by the time you read this evaluation. The company also provides 24/7 ticket-based support.
Ducks quack, geese honk, and swans whoop (we know, because we looked it up). Overall, particularly provided the limitless connections and low yearly rate, we believe Goose VPN is something to beep about.
SEE ALL GOOSEVPN PLANS.
surfshark-logo.
Surfshark.
Variety of servers: 800+.
Variety of server locations: 50.
Country/Jurisdiction: British Virgin Islands.
While Surfshark's network is smaller than some, they make it up on functions. Let's start off with the greatest win they provide: endless device assistance. If you want to run your whole home or office on Surfshark's VPN, you don't have to worry about the number of gadgets you have on or linked. They also use anti-malware, advertisement stopping and tracker blocking as part of their software application.
The company has a solid variety of app support, running on Mac, Windows, iOS, Android, FireTV, and through routers. We particularly like the feature that permits you to whitelist certain apps and websites to instantly bypass the VPN. For some service usage, this can be seriously crucial.
Surfshark also offers three special modes developed for those who wish to get around limitations and more thoroughly hide their online footsteps. Camouflage Mode masks your VPN activity so your ISP does not know you're utilizing a VPN. MultiHop dives your connection through multiple nations to hide your trail. Lastly, NoBorders Mode "allows [you] to successfully use Surfshark in restrictive areas." Just be careful. Doing any of these three things might be illegal in your nation and could lead to really extreme penalties.
For a year plan, Surfshark can be found in very close to much of the other full-featured VPN suppliers, at $71.88 for the first year. Take care, because it looks like that will jump to $143.40 after your very first year is up. Month-by-month plans are $11.95. Their finest deal is $1.99 a month, for their 24 month strategy (you pay $47.76 up front). Absolutely benefit from their generous 30-day trial to choose if you like this service (and possibly set a reminder in 23 months to see if you can talk them into a continued discount rate).
SEE ALL SURFSHARK PREPARES.
WEBROOT LOGO.
Webroot WiFi Security.
Country/Jurisdiction: United States.
Beginning rate: $39.99.
As VPN services go, Webroot WiFi Security is relatively bare-bones-- but it's also low-cost. Starting at $39.99 for a year of VPN service, you can get a package with both VPN and Webroot's antivirus software for $69.98 for your very first year. Sadly, both of these costs bump up after the first year. VPN security leaps to $59.99 and the package jumps to $119.98.
While we praise the combination of VPN and anti-viruses in one package, Webroot has had a troubled few years. In 2017, it wrongly flagged Windows' system files as malicious. In 2018, a kernel exploit was found in the business's Mac anti-virus client. In 2019, the company was acquired by backup company Carbonite.
If you're only safeguarding a couple of gadgets and wish to conserve loan, Webroot's VPN might be for you. That $39.99 rate is for as much as three devices. If you wish to protect 5 devices, you'll require to pay $59.99 for a year and $79.99 after that. Honestly, as soon as you get in that price variety, there are products with more abilities readily available.
Webroot's VPN is also light on protocols. While they do link utilizing IKEv2 by default, they likewise provide L2TP and the very old and very insecure PPTP protocol (although they do warn that it's not "as" protect. Another concern for those of you who need deep security is that the business does log both which VPN server location you link to and the nation you connect from.
So who is Webroot's VPN for? If all you wish to do is protect your Wi-Fi connection while browsing in your local cafe or at a hotel, you only require to connect a couple of devices, and you wish to save money, this is a convenient alternative. However if you require a major VPN with deep capabilities, you'll want to look elsewhere in this directory. Likewise, we didn't discover any reference to a money back warranty, so check with their pre-sales and support prior to purchasing.
SEE ALL WEBROOT WIFI SECURITY PLANS.
VPN FAQ
Since we're living in a connected world, security and privacy are critical to ensure our personal safety from nefarious hacks. From online banking to communicating with coworkers on a daily basis, we're now frequently transferring data on our computers and smartphones. It's extremely important to find ways of securing our digital life and for this reason, VPNs have become increasingly common.
What Is a VPN?
A virtual private network (VPN) is a technology that allows you to create a secure connection over a less-secure network between your computer and the internet. It protects your privacy by allowing you to anonymously appear to be anywhere you choose.
A VPN is beneficial because it guarantees an appropriate level of security and privacy to the connected systems. This is extremely useful when the existing network infrastructure alone cannot support it.
For example, when your computer is connected to a VPN, the computer acts as if it's also on the same network as the VPN. All of your online traffic is transferred over a secure connection to the VPN. The computer will then behave as if it's on that network, allowing you to securely gain access to local network resources. Regardless of your location, you'll be given permission to use the internet as if you were present at the VPN's location. This can be extremely beneficial for individuals using a public Wi-Fi.
Therefore, when you browse the internet while on a VPN, your computer will contact the website through an encrypted VPN service connection. The VPN will then forward the request for you and forward the response from the website back through a secure connection.
VPNs are really easy to use, and they're considered to be highly effective tools. They can be used to do a wide range of things. The most popular types of VPNs are remote-access VPNs and site-to-site VPNs.
What is a remote-access VPN?
A remote-access VPN uses public infrastructure like the internet to provide remote users secure access to their network. This is particularly important for organizations and their corporate networks. It's crucial when employees connect to a public hotspot and use the internet for sending work-related emails. A VPN client, on the user's computer or mobile device connects to a VPN gateway on the company's network. This gateway will typically require the device to authenticate its identity. It will then create a network link back to the device that allows it to reach internal network resources such as file servers, printers and intranets, as if it were on the same local network.
It usually relies on either Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) or Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) to secure the connection. However, SSL VPNs can also be used to supply secure access to a single application, rather than an entire internal network. Some VPNs also provide Layer 2 access to the target network; these will require a tunneling protocol like PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) or L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) running across the base IPsec connection.
What is a site-to-site VPN?
This is when the VPN uses a gateway device to connect to the entire network in one location to a network in another location. The majority of site-to-site VPNs that connect over the internet use IPsec. Rather than using the public internet, it is also normal to use career multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) clouds as the main transport for site-to-site VPNs.
VPNs are often defined between specific computers, and in most cases, they are servers in separate data centers. However, new hybrid-access situations have now transformed the VPN gateway in the cloud, typically with a secure link from the cloud service provider into the internal network.
What is a mobile VPN?
A traditional VPN can affect the user experience when applied to wireless devices. It's best to use a mobile VPN to avoid slower speeds and data loss. A mobile VPN offers you a high level of security for the challenges of wireless communication. It can provide mobile devices with secure access to network resources and software applications on their wireless networks. It's good to use when you're facing coverage gaps, inter-network roaming, bandwidth issues, or limited battery life, memory or processing power.
Mobile VPNs are designed and optimized to ensure a seamless user experience when devices are switching networks or moving out of coverage. It generally has a smaller memory footprint, and because of that, it also requires less processing power than a traditional VPN. Therefore, it enables your applications to run faster while the battery pack is able to last longer.
A Mobile VPN is a worthwhile tool to have since it increases privacy, user satisfaction and productivity, while also reducing unforeseen support issues caused by wireless connectivity problems. The increasing usage of mobile devices and wireless connectivity make it more important to ensure that your data is being transferred through a secure network. It will allow you to access the internet, while staying safe behind a firewall that protects your privileged information.
Who needs a VPN?
Individuals that access the internet from a computer, tablet or smartphone will benefit from using a VPN. A VPN service will always boost your security by encrypting and anonymizing all of your online activity. Therefore, both private and business users can benefit from using a VPN. Communications that happen between the VPN server and your device are encrypted, so a hacker or website spying on you wouldn't know which web pages you access. They also won't be able to see private information like passwords, usernames and bank or shopping details and so on. Anyone that wants to protect their privacy and security online should use a VPN.
How to choose a VPN Service?
There's a vast range of VPN servers on the internet. Some are free, but the best ones require a monthly subscription. Before you decide to download a VPN, make sure you consider these factors for understanding a VPN:
Cost - VPNs aren't too pricey, but they vary from vendor to vendor. If your main concern is price, then go with something inexpensive, or free - like Spotflux Premium VPN or AnchorFree HotSpot Shield Elite. By all means, try a free server but they do have a few drawbacks since they attract a lot of users. Free servers are often slower, and since most are ad-supported, they place adverts on the online pages you access. Others can even limit the speed of your connection, as well as your online time or amount of data transferred.
It's also important to note that leading VPN providers such as NordVPN and Privacy Internet Access offer stronger security features to ensure you're digitally safe. When selecting a paid VPN service, always be sure to check which countries it operates servers in.
Reliability - Select a VPN that is reliable and read the reviews to make sure that it's capable of protecting you by providing you with sufficient online privacy.
High security - An effective VPN will have the following security features: 128-bit encryption, anonymous DNS servers and an absence of connection logs.
Are there any bandwidth limits? This can often be linked to price; paying more will generally provide more bandwidth with faster internet access.
Are apps for Android, iOS phones and tablets available? Apps for Android and iOS devices are also vulnerable, so make sure your VPN server can support them.
To ensure privacy, you want to make sure you have a VPN that doesn't store online logs. Some servers provide virus and spyware protection, and features like that can significantly increase your online safety.
Using a no-logs VPN service will provide you with a higher degree of security. It can protect you from blanket government surveillance and prevent your internet service provider from knowing your online activity.
Using a VPN for Netflix and other forbidden treasures
Online streaming services like Netflix and Hulu have been making it difficult for foreign users to access their content in other countries. Many people can get around region restrictions by using a VPN service to route your traffic through another country.
It can be quite simple to watch Netflix and other restricted goodies. You'll have to use a VPN service that allows you to get a unique IP address. This can often be available for an additional fee. Look for VPN services that offer a "dedicated IP address", "dedicated IP", or "static IP." Additional features like these will always allow you to access content from Netflix through a VPN service.
This is by far the easiest way to access your forbidden apps since there's no specific way to block VPN traffic.
A lot of people started using a VPN to evade geo-restrictions. But despite its forbidden benefits to users outside the US, a VPN is a great tool that can protect you and enhance your online experience over the internet by providing you with sufficient security and privacy. When it comes to selecting the best VPN, you have plenty of choices. There are many cost-effective VPN options, and all of them will vary in monthly offerings. Choosing the best VPN is easier once you narrow down the competition. The best indication of a good VPN service provider is that they have the right security and the right support in place for you.
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Please recommend me a Seedbox

Are you OK with direct message offers from vendors?
Yes
What are your main reasons for getting a seedbox?
Being able to run Plex on it with decent quality and get the latest content.
Do you have any specific requirements?
I would like to run 4k content on the plex server and have quite a few TB so I can seed in the private trackers.
I also use public trackers because currently I just dont have that many private ones.
Are you looking for a shared or dedicated solution?
I would love a dedicated one if it fits my budget.
Are you looking for managed or unmanaged solution?
Managed, Im not that great at setting up everything.
If possible I would also like someone that can set up the seedbox with plex, google drive and the automation (sonarr, radarr and that stuff).
Please describe your Seedbox experience:
Currently I have set up 3 seedboxes myself, but somehow they always had some problems that I couldnt solve. Thats why I would like someone to do it for me this time.
Currently with a provider or used one before?
Im currently with UltraSeedBox. I bought there 2 year subscription a couple of months ago. So I will run this seedbox aswell. This seedbox would be for grabbing new content and being able to run 4k content. The UltraSeedBox does everything manually and cant run 4k content.
What is your Linux experience?
Not that great, but I can manage when I look everything up.
What is your monthly budget?
I would like to pay 100$ for 3 months to see if it fits my needs. So that would be 33$ a month.
Payment preferences or requirements?
Bitcoins
Do you need support for public trackers?
Yes, currently I dont have enough private trackers (only IPT).
Routing: Tell us your continent:
Europe
What kind of connection speeds do you need?
Decent one that can run 4k content without problem to 2-3 people at a time.
How much monthly bandwidth is needed?
I would prefer a seedbox where Plex is not included.
Right now Im using about 20TB upload bandwith a month with UltraSeedBox (Plex isnt included in this). So I would say something similair.
How much disk space do you need?
4TB would be nice.
List some features you are looking for:
Being able to run 4k content to 2-3 people
4TB storage
20 upload bandwith (Plex not included)
Private and public trackers
Someone that can set the seedbox up
Anything else you think we should know?
No
submitted by Adult-Plex to seedboxes [link] [comments]

NordVPN Review - Honest Review

EDIT: Nord is having a 75% off sale AND All plans have 30-day money-back guarantee You can claim that deal by using our special link! @ www.buy-nord.com
NordVPN has been growing at a very fast pace since launching in 2012, and it’s now one of the largest VPN services on the market with over 12 million customers worldwide (according to NordVPN themselves).
NordVPN has grown so much that it now claims to be the “best VPN service provider of 2019” but we all know that’s easier said than done, right?
We needed to understand how good NordVPN really is and answer questions our readers have been asking us:
But before we dive into it, let's take a quick look at NordVPN’s pros and cons:
Pros
Cons
Works with
Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, Hulu, BBC iPlayer, Sky, HBO, Torrenting, Kodi
Available on
Windows Mac Ios Android Linux Price from
$2.99/mo
Still, want to know more about NordVPN and whether it’s the right VPN for you?
We’ve carefully tested every single NordVPN app so you can rest assured that we left no stone unturned.
Without further ado, let's get right into this review starting with NordVPN’s speed.
Speed & Reliability Very fast speeds across the world
NordVPN is a very fast VPN – as long as you connect to nearby VPN servers.
It’s not the fastest VPN there is (these VPNs are currently faster), but NordVPN is still very quick and you won’t experience any speed issues.
Both same-country (UK server to UK server) download and upload speeds are impressive, with minimal internet slowdown (around a 5-6% drop from our normal internet speeds).
This makes NordVPN a very good choice for both streaming fans and torrenters.
Speed results from our physical location in London (100Mbps fibre optic connection) to a London test server.
Before using NordVPN:
DOWNLOAD Mbps 94.83
UPLOAD Mbps 91.8
PING ms 3
When connected to NordVPN:
DOWNLOAD Mbps 90.51
UPLOAD Mbps 86.28
PING ms 5
Download speed without NordVPN: 94.83Mbps
Download speed with NordVPN: 90.51Mbps
Our download speed loss when NordVPN is running: 5%
As you can see, NordVPN registered very impressive speeds when we connected to a nearby VPN server. It’s less impressive – but still very usable – over long-distance connections, though.
Here are the average download and upload speeds connecting out from the UK to NordVPN’s servers:
USA: 47Mbps (download) & 48Mbps (upload) Germany: 78Mbps (download) & 77Mbps (upload) Singapore: 17Mbps (download) & 6Mbps (upload) Australia: 22Mbps (download) & 3Mbps (upload) Ping times are also fairly low on most of NordVPN’s servers, which is good for gaming although there are better VPNs available to gamers.
Server Locations Over 5,600 VPN servers spread across 60 countries worldwide
Globe with a blue flag 60 Countries Image of a city landscape 90+ Cities Image of a pink marker 5,600+ IP Addresses See all Server Locations NordVPN’s server list covers 60 countries – it isn’t the widest VPN server range we’ve seen, but it should almost certainly ensure there is a server located near you.
Screenshot of NordVPN Server List in App
NordVPN provides a whopping 5,600 VPN servers, none of which are virtual, with each server given a static IP address. This is the highest number of VPN servers provided by a top VPN service, which is impressive. Even better, NordVPN owns all of the servers in its network.
NordVPN’s server network covers all of the popular server locations such as the UK, the US, Australia, and Canada, as well as less common locations including Argentina, Egypt, and Albania.
NordVPN provides city-level server choices in five different countries, too:
Australia (five locations, 200+ servers) Canada (three locations, 400+ servers) Germany (two locations, 200+ servers) India (two locations, 20+ servers) The US (20 locations, 1,800+ servers) NordVPN used to offer city-level choice in the UK (London and Manchester) but recently removed the Manchester VPN servers as “their performance was lacking.” NordVPN have added even more servers in London in order to ensure the best speeds for those located in the UK.
Streaming & Torrenting An excellent choice for streaming & torrenting
Thanks to its SmartPlay technology, NordVPN consistently works with popular streaming services like Netflix and BBC iPlayer.
To watch Netflix, simply click on the US or UK VPN country server and the NordVPN app will automatically find the best option for you.
NordVPN also unlocks loads more Netflix libraries, including Canada, Japan, France, Italy, and Germany.
Not all of NordVPN’s UK servers provide access to BBC iPlayer, but a quick message to live chat will let you know which ones are currently working.
That will save you the trial-and-error of testing out all of NordVPN’s hundreds of UK servers. This is a big plus, as many other VPN providers can’t unlock BBC iPlayer.
Unrestricted access to streaming services doesn’t stop there. Many of NordVPN’s customers use the VPN service to stream:
Amazon Prime Video Hulu HBO Sling TV Sky Now TV Torrenting Torrenting (and other P2P traffic) isn’t allowed on every single NordVPN server, but there’s still more than enough server choice to keep torrenters and Kodi streamers happy.
You can torrent while connected to almost every country on NordVPN’s server list – these are listed under ‘Speciality Servers’ within in the app settings.
However, the following countries do not permit P2P:
Argentina Costa Rica Chile Cyrpus Egypt Georgia Indonesia Malaysia South Korea Taiwan Thailand Vietnam Ukraine United Arab Emirates If you attempt to torrent while connected to a VPN server that doesn’t support P2P NordVPN will simply re-route your traffic through a dedicated server located in either Canada or the Netherlands.
With plenty of added security features – such as its VPN kill switch – and a no-logs policy, NordVPN is without a doubt one of the safest VPNs for torrenting. Fast uploads and downloads make it a great choice too.
Bypassing Censorship Obfuscated VPN servers work in China intermittently
Since the VPN crackdown in China, NordVPN has become a little less reliable for residents or visitors in China, but it’s still a pretty good choice of VPN.
Users have reported that NordVPN’s obfuscated servers often bypass the Chinese censors, but others have experienced difficulties connecting to them.
NordVPN’s obfuscated servers are spread out fairly evenly, with options in North America, North Africa, Asia, and Europe, so you shouldn’t be too far away from one.
There are no obfuscated VPN servers available on the NordVPN iOS app, though, so iPhone users may struggle to connect from China without some manual configuration.
See our latest VPN recommendations if you’re looking for a reliable VPN for China, or you can read our ExpressVPN review or our VyprVPN review, two of our top choices.
That’s just China, though – in other high censorship countries like Saudi Arabia and Russia NordVPN remains a solid VPN choice to bypass censorship.
Platforms & Devices Protect all your devices with a wide range of custom VPN apps
Apps Windows Logo Windows Mac Logo Mac iOS Logo iOS Android Logo Android Linux Logo Linux Router Logo Router NordVPN has simple native VPN apps for all major operating systems:
Windows macOS iOS Android Linux (yes, even Linux) If your device is not compatible with the custom apps above, you can also install NordVPN on your router.
What’s more, you can use NordVPN on up to six devices at the same time using just one VPN subscription, which is one of the highest allowances we’ve seen.
Games Consoles & Streaming Devices AppleTV Logo AppleTV Amazon Fire TV Logo Amazon Fire TV Chromecast Logo Chromecast Nintendo Logo Nintendo PlayStation Logo PlayStation Roku Logo Roku Xbox Logo Xbox NordVPN has an Android TV app, meaning you can use the VPN app with streaming devices such as Android TV and the Amazon Fire TV Stick without any manual configuration.
In fact, NordVPN is one of the best VPNs for the Fire TV although it is not our top recommendation. If you own a Firestick and want to use a VPN app with it, take a look at our roundup of the best VPNs for Fire TV and Fire TV Stick.
If you want to run NordVPN on your other streaming devices or games consoles like Xbox and PlayStation, though, you’ll need to install it at router level. It’s not too difficult and it means that all devices connected to the router will be protected.
Browser Extensions Chrome Logo Chrome Firefox Logo Firefox NordVPN provides VPN extensions for Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox.
These VPN add-ons encrypt your browser traffic, but protection ends there so we always suggest using NordVPN’s extensions in conjunction with the main VPN application or client.
The extensions also have an in-built WebRTC leak blocker, which is an extremely useful bonus.
NordVPN doesn’t yet have VPN extensions for Safari or Opera browsers.
Encryption & Security Secure VPN with advanced features but lacking protocol flexibility
Protocol IKEv2/IPSec
OpenVPN (TCP/UDP)
WireGuard
Encryption AES-256
Security DNS Leak Blocking
First-party DNS
Supports TCP Port 443
VPN Kill Switch
WebRTC Leak Blocking
Advanced features Double VPN
TOR via VPN Server
Please see our VPN Glossary if these terms confuse you and would like to learn more.
NordVPN has only one choice of VPN protocol by default, but it’s our personal favourite: OpenVPN. The iOS and macOS apps (available to download directly from the Apple App Store) run on IKEv2, though.
OpenVPN provides the perfect blend of speed and security. It encrypts all your internet traffic using the ‘unhackable’ AES-256 cypher.
Screenshot of NordVPN Settings Menu in App
You can also use IKEv2 with NordVPN’s Windows and Android apps if you like, but it requires an extra download and a lot of advanced setup (manual configuration).
The VPN kill switch feature protects your IP address in the event of a connection drop, and NordVPN’s privately owned and operated DNS servers ensure end-to-end protection.
NordVPN provides Double VPN (multi-hop) and Tor over VPN (Onion over VPN) for extra encryption.
As with all the VPN providers we review, we carried out extensive testing to find IP and DNS leaks when using NordVPN and we are happy to report that we found no leaks whatsoever.
Screenshot of browserleaks.com test results for NordVPN Leak test results on browserleaks.com while connected to a NordVPN US server. We test from the UK.
NordVPN has recently released a new technology for Linux users called NordLynx that’s based on the WireGuard VPN protocol.
WireGuard is a new VPN protocol that aims to be faster and more secure than the current standards, but it’s still in development so should be considered experimental at this point.
Logging Policy No-logs VPN in a privacy-friendly jurisdiction
NordVPN doesn’t log your traffic or store any user logs, making it a safe and trustworthy VPN.
Here’s a comprehensive list of all the information it does collect:
Server loads That is the full extent of the information NordVPN collects, making it a true no-logs VPN. Server loads are monitored to maintain the optimal performance of VPN servers for users, and nothing else.
Your privacy is upheld above all else, and NordVPN absolutely will not sell your personal data to any third parties.
Jurisdiction NordVPN was founded in 2012 is operated by Tefincom & Co S.A. which is headquartered under the legal jurisdiction of Panama, putting it beyond the reach of US and EU data retention laws.
Panama does not require VPN companies to store or report any of their data, nor is it part of any agreements that compel it to share information with other countries.
Being based in Panama gives NordVPN the power to deny any third-party data requests, so there is absolutely no way that any of your online activity can be traced back to you.
In 2018, NordVPN came under some heat as it was accused of not being headquartered in Panama. The reason for the controversy is that when you purchased NordVPN on Google Play Store, at the time the Seller of NordVPN was listed as CloudVPN INC. (a company registered in the US), and not Tefincom & Co S.A.
It turns out that CloudVPN INC. is a payment processor and NordVPN was simply using it to handle payments, similarly to how other VPN providers use payment processing companies to manage these type of transactions.
Ease of Use Quick and easy setup with simple custom apps
How to Install & Set Up NordVPN Screenshot of NordVPN Download Button Downloading the software is as simple as going to Nord's website and clicking the download button for the appropriate platform.
Screenshot of NordVPN Installation Progress You can check the progress of your installation here, which usually only takes a couple of minutes at most.
Screenshot of NordVPN App Login Screen Once the software is installed, all that's left to do is log into the app and you're ready to go.
Screenshot of NordVPN Desktop App Main Screen The main NordVPN app view with server locations to the left, which are also presented as pins on the map.
Screenshot of NordVPN Specialty Servers On the left-hand side of the app, you can see the full list of server locations and speciality servers for P2P, Double VPN, etc.
Screenshot of NordVPN City-Level Servers Hover over a country name and click on the three horizontal dots that appear in order to select a city-level server.
Screenshot of NordVPN Connected Screen You will know when NordVPN is working because the server location you are connected to and your new IP address will be displayed at the bottom of the app.
Screenshot of NordVPN General App Settings You can find the general settings by clicking 'Settings' at the top of the app. These consist of simple toggles for general settings, including the VPN kill switch.
Screenshot of NordVPN Advanced App Settings Scroll down to the bottom of the settings menu to find the advanced options. After confirming that you know what you're doing, you can toggle between TCP/UDP and use obfuscated servers.
The NordVPN website has comprehensive VPN setup guides for whatever platform you happen to be using, but it’s unlikely you’ll ever need them.
All of NordVPN’s custom VPN apps run smoothly and are almost entirely self-explanatory.
If you want to play around with advanced settings then you’re welcome to do that too – they’re clearly labelled and the app even warns you not to do so unless you know what you’re doing.
Browser Extensions Screenshot of NordVPN Chrome Extension
It couldn’t be much easier to set up NordVPN’s browser extensions – just go to the Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox store and download the add-on to your browser.
Once you’ve logged on you can choose a server and connect. We’d recommend enabling ‘Block WebRTC’ from the settings menu to prevent any potential IP leaks.
Customer Support Helpful live chat support & useful online resources
24/7 Live chat support Online Resources NordVPN provides excellent quality customer support both through its extensive knowledge base and via online live chat.
Email support isn’t as good and we’ve found responses to be slow at times. There is really no reason to email customer support, though, as NordVPN’s live chat service is 24/7.
Encounter any issues? NordVPN running slow, perhaps? No problem – support agents respond quickly and are extremely friendly and helpful, managing to fix most of our VPN issues within a couple of minutes.
NordVPN’s troubleshooting guides are very useful, too, covering a variety of potential VPN issues and providing a range of possible solutions.
Pricing & Deals Fantastic value for money on longer plans
NordVPN Coupon NordVPN logo NordVPN
Get 58% off NordVPN's 12-month plan
TestedEnds 1 Sep Get Code10 Terms NordVPN Pricing Plan NordVPN is one of the best VPN services on the market, and it’s not very expensive at all. Also, every NordVPN price plan offers exactly the same VPN features.
NordVPN costs a fairly pricey $11.95 if you pay month-by-month, but the price drops by almost half to $6.99 a month for annual plans.
For the biggest savings, NordVPN’s three-year special deal costs just $2.99 per month, a saving of 75%.
Monthly
US$11.95/mo
Billed $11.95 every month 12 Months
US$6.99/mo
Billed $83.88 every 12 months Save 41% 2 Years
US$3.99/mo
Billed $95.75 every 2 years Save 66% 3 Years
US$2.99/mo
Billed $107.55 every 3 years Save 75% All plans have 30-day money-back guarantee This is the best option available, $107 for 3 years coverage is unbeatable in the VPN sector. You can claim that deal by using our special link! @ www.buy-nord.com Payment & Refund Options NordVPN accepts a few different payment options, but it recently made the decision to stop accepting PayPal. The VPN service now uses Adyen for credit card payments, which it claims offers a greater level of privacy for customers due to its self-contained nature.
Here are the accepted payment methods, which include some cryptocurrencies for those seeking higher levels of privacy:
Credit and debit cards Direct debit Amazon Pay Bitcoin Ethereum Ripple Alipay UnionPay
NordVPN no longer comes with a free VPN trial, but it does offer a 30-day money-back guarantee.
You can cancel your NordVPN subscription within 30 days by contacting the customer support team through live chat. You will have to go through a troubleshooting process first, but the refund should be processed within 10 business days.
submitted by Zinkzd to VPNsReddit [link] [comments]

Crypto and the Latency Arms Race: Crypto Exchanges and the HFT Crowd

Crypto and the Latency Arms Race: Crypto Exchanges and the HFT Crowd


News by Coindesk: Max Boonen
Carrying on from an earlier post about the evolution of high frequency trading (HFT), how it can harm markets and how crypto exchanges are responding, here we focus on the potential longer-term impact on the crypto ecosystem.
First, though, we need to focus on the state of HFT in a broader context.

Conventional markets are adopting anti-latency arbitrage mechanisms

In conventional markets, latency arbitrage has increased toxicity on lit venues and pushed trading volumes over-the-counter or into dark pools. In Europe, dark liquidity has increased in spite of efforts by regulators to clamp down on it. In some markets, regulation has actually contributed to this. Per the SEC:
“Using the Nasdaq market as a proxy, [Regulation] NMS did not seem to succeed in its mission to increase the display of limit orders in the marketplace. We have seen an increase in dark liquidity, smaller trade sizes, similar trading volumes, and a larger number of “small” venues.”
Why is non-lit execution remaining or becoming more successful in spite of its lower transparency? In its 2014 paper, BlackRock came out in favour of dark pools in the context of best execution requirements. It also lamented message congestion and cautioned against increasing tick sizes, features that advantage latency arbitrageurs. (This echoes the comment to CoinDesk of David Weisberger, CEO of Coinroutes, who explained that the tick sizes typical of the crypto market are small and therefore do not put slower traders at much of a disadvantage.)
Major venues now recognize that the speed race threatens their business model in some markets, as it pushes those “slow” market makers with risk-absorbing capacity to provide liquidity to the likes of BlackRock off-exchange. Eurex has responded by implementing anti-latency arbitrage (ALA) mechanisms in options:
“Right now, a lot of liquidity providers need to invest more into technology in order to protect themselves against other, very fast liquidity providers, than they can invest in their pricing for the end client. The end result of this is a certain imbalance, where we have a few very sophisticated liquidity providers that are very active in the order book and then a lot of liquidity providers that have the ability to provide prices to end clients, but are tending to do so more away from the order book”, commented Jonas Ullmann, Eurex’s head of market functionality. Such views are increasingly supported by academic research.
XTX identifies two categories of ALA mechanisms: policy-based and technology-based. Policy-based ALA refers to a venue simply deciding that latency arbitrageurs are not allowed to trade on it. Alternative venues to exchanges (going under various acronyms such as ECN, ATS or MTF) can allow traders to either take or make, but not engage in both activities. Others can purposefully select — and advertise — their mix of market participants, or allow users to trade in separate “rooms” where undesired firms are excluded. The rise of “alternative microstructures” is mostly evidenced in crypto by the surge in electronic OTC trading, where traders can receive better prices than on exchange.
Technology-based ALA encompasses delays, random or deterministic, added to an exchange’s matching engine to reduce the viability of latency arbitrage strategies. The classic example is a speed bump where new orders are delayed by a few milliseconds, but the cancellation of existing orders is not. This lets market makers place fresh quotes at the new prevailing market price without being run over by latency arbitrageurs.
As a practical example, the London Metal Exchange recently announced an eight-millisecond speed bump on some contracts that are prime candidates for latency arbitrageurs due to their similarity to products trading on the much bigger CME in Chicago.
Why 8 milliseconds? First, microwave transmission between Chicago and the US East Coast is 3 milliseconds faster than fibre optic lines. From there, the $250,000 a month Hibernia Express transatlantic cable helps you get to London another 4 milliseconds faster than cheaper alternatives. Add a millisecond for internal latencies such as not using FPGAs and 8 milliseconds is the difference for a liquidity provider between investing tens of millions in speed technology or being priced out of the market by latency arbitrage.
With this in mind, let’s consider what the future holds for crypto.

Crypto exchanges must not forget their retail roots

We learn from conventional markets that liquidity benefits from a diverse base of market makers with risk-absorption capacity.
Some have claimed that the spread compression witnessed in the bitcoin market since 2017 is due to electronification. Instead, I posit that it is greater risk-absorbing capacity and capital allocation that has improved the liquidity of the bitcoin market, not an increase in speed, as in fact being a fast exchange with colocation such as Gemini has not supported higher volumes. Old-timers will remember Coinsetter, a company that, per the Bitcoin Wiki , “was created in 2012, and operates a bitcoin exchange and ECN. Coinsetter’s CSX trading technology enables millisecond trade execution times and offers one of the fastest API data streams in the industry.” The Wiki page should use the past tense as Coinsetter failed to gain traction, was acquired in 2016 and subsequently closed.
Exchanges that invest in scalability and user experience will thrive (BitMEX comes to mind). Crypto exchanges that favour the fastest traders (by reducing jitter, etc.) will find that winner-takes-all latency strategies do not improve liquidity. Furthermore, they risk antagonising the majority of their users, who are naturally suspicious of platforms that sell preferential treatment.
It is baffling that the head of Russia for Huobi vaunted to CoinDesk that: “The option [of co-location] allows [selected clients] to make trades 70 to 100 times faster than other users”. The article notes that Huobi doesn’t charge — but of course, not everyone can sign up.
Contrast this with one of the most successful exchanges today: Binance. It actively discourages some HFT strategies by tracking metrics such as order-to-trade ratios and temporarily blocking users that breach certain limits. Market experts know that Binance remains extremely relevant to price discovery, irrespective of its focus on a less professional user base.
Other exchanges, take heed.
Coinbase closed its entire Chicago office where 30 engineers had worked on a faster matching engine, an exercise that is rumoured to have cost $50mm. After much internal debate, I bet that the company finally realised that it wouldn’t recoup its investment and that its value derived from having onboarded 20 million users, not from upgrading systems that are already fast and reliable by the standards of crypto.
It is also unsurprising that Kraken’s Steve Hunt, a veteran of low-latency torchbearer Jump Trading, commented to CoinDesk that: “We want all customers regardless of size or scale to have equal access to our marketplace”. Experience speaks.
In a recent article on CoinDesk , Matt Trudeau of ErisX points to the lower reliability of cloud-based services compared to dedicated, co-located and cross-connected gateways. That much is true. Web-based technology puts the emphasis on serving the greatest number of users concurrently, not on serving a subset of users deterministically and at the lowest latency possible. That is the point. Crypto might be the only asset class that is accessible directly to end users with a low number of intermediaries, precisely because of the crypto ethos and how the industry evolved. It is cheaper to buy $500 of bitcoin than it is to buy $500 of Microsoft shares.
Trudeau further remarks that official, paid-for co-location is better than what he pejoratively calls “unsanctioned colocation,” the fact that crypto traders can place their servers in the same cloud providers as the exchanges. The fairness argument is dubious: anyone with $50 can set up an Amazon AWS account and run next to the major crypto exchanges, whereas cheap co-location starts at $1,000 a month in the real world. No wonder “speed technology revenues” are estimated at $1 billion for the major U.S. equity exchanges.
For a crypto exchange, to reside in a financial, non-cloud data centre with state-of-the-art network latencies might ironically impair the likelihood of success. The risk is that such an exchange becomes dominated on the taker side by the handful of players that already own or pay for the fastest communication routes between major financial data centres such as Equinix and the CME in Chicago, where bitcoin futures are traded. This might reduce liquidity on the exchange because a significant proportion of the crypto market’s risk-absorption capacity is coming from crypto-centric funds that do not have the scale to operate low-latency strategies, but might make up the bulk of the liquidity on, say, Binance. Such mom-and-pop liquidity providers might therefore shun an exchange that caters to larger players as a priority.

Exchanges risk losing market share to OTC liquidity providers

While voice trading in crypto has run its course, a major contribution to the market’s increase in liquidity circa 2017–2018 was the risk appetite of the original OTC voice desks such as Cumberland Mining and Circle.
Automation really shines in bringing together risk-absorbing capacity tailored to each client (which is impossible on anonymous exchanges) with seamless electronic execution. In contrast, latency-sensitive venues can see liquidity evaporate in periods of stress, as happened to a well-known and otherwise successful exchange on 26 June which saw its bitcoin order book become $1,000 wide for an extended period of time as liquidity providers turned their systems off. The problem is compounded by the general unavailability of credit on cash exchanges, an issue that the OTC market’s settlement model avoids.
As the crypto market matures, the business model of today’s major cash exchanges will come under pressure. In the past decade, the FX market has shown that retail traders benefit from better liquidity when they trade through different channels than institutional speculators. Systematic internalizers demonstrate the same in equities. This fact of life will apply to crypto. Exchanges have to pick a side: either cater to retail (or retail-driven intermediaries) or court HFTs.
Now that an aggregator like Tagomi runs transaction cost analysis for their clients, it will become plainly obvious to investors with medium-term and long-term horizons (i.e. anyone not looking at the next 2 seconds) that their price impact on exchange is worse than against electronic OTC liquidity providers.
Today, exchange fee structures are awkward because they must charge small users a lot to make up for crypto’s exceptionally high compliance and onboarding costs. Onboarding a single, small value user simply does not make sense unless fees are quite elevated. Exchanges end up over-charging large volume traders such as B2C2’s clients, another incentive to switch to OTC execution.
In the alternative, what if crypto exchanges focus on HFT traders? In my opinion, the CME is a much better venue for institutional takers as fees are much lower and conventional trading firms will already be connected to it. My hypothesis is that most exchanges will not be able to compete with the CME for fast traders (after all, the CBOE itself gave up), and must cater to their retail user base instead.
In a future post, we will explore other microstructures beyond all-to-all exchanges and bilateral OTC trading.
Fiber threads image via Shutterstock
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