Bitcoin Gets a Mention on Rapper Eminem’s New Album ...

My experience getting cosmetic surgery (hairline transplant) in Seoul

Hi guys! I’m using a throwaway because I don’t want my plastic surgery to be associated with my main account when my friends know my reddit handle. There seems to be some interest in plastic surgery on this sub, so I wanted to share my experience here.
Disclaimer: I’m not a promoter for plastic surgery nor do I advocate it, blablabla, I’m posting here simply because I love the ab community here, I’m in Seoul alone (and will be here for the next couple weeks) so might as well kill some time!! (Also I know that there is a more common internet forum for Asian plastic surgery on Purseforum but I just don’t really like using the interface there. Reddit is my internet home. I may post there in due time.)
Why I got a hairline transplant I have a pretty big forehead. I thought it made my facial proportions look quite off, and I didn’t like looking so different when my hair was tied up. I also felt like it was making my face look bigger. My features seemed to be concentrated in the center of my face, there was just so much space around my features if that makes sense. I thought that getting a hairline transplant would reduce that appearance.
Why I chose to go to South Korea: I’m not Korean, but I do live in an East Asian country. Going to Seoul is fast and not especially expensive for me. The prices are good, and I feel better going to a clinic in a country that has such a big plastic surgery market, because it means the surgeons have more practice.
How much did it cost? I’m not willing to share publicly, but I got a good deal. I went on babitalk which is like a groupon for plastic surgery, as ridiculous as that sounds. It’s all in Korean though, so it’s pretty difficult to navigate. Google translate doesn’t help much, because Korean websites tend to put a lot of text information into images. So Google translate doesn’t work on that. However, if you use the mobile app you can take a photo of those pictures, though that is pretty time consuming. Anyway, since it’s all in Korean, using it will get you a ‘local’s price’ (clinics tend to charge more for foreigners). I don’t think you can get the deal anymore. Someone asked for a price quote after they heard I was going to this clinic, and they got quoted a price like 1000USD higher than mine.
Where did you go? I’m sorry but I’m not willing to share publicly :( I know it’s super annoying but I really do not want to be accused as a promoter. Also, the clinic doesn’t have an English translator present, and none of its website is in English. It’s not one of those clinics that are aimed at foreigners (except for Chinese people). I had to bring my own translator along.
Why did you choose that clinic then?
  1. The price.
  2. The reviews were good (I read the reviews on soyoung, a Chinese review site). I also liked their before and afters on their website.
  3. The doctor will doing every step of the hair harvesting and transplant, and not a nurse/technician.
  4. They do FUE, which I consider the ideal method (through internet research and not professional opinion).
  5. The way they harvest hair is in a sort of zipper like pattern, so there will not be a thick, noticeable bald line if someone should ever lift up your hair at that particular spot.
  6. Most Western clinics are aimed at men, but there was equal emphasis placed on men and women on the website of the clinic. In fact, the babitalk deal I saw only had pictures of women.
Booking, consultation and surgery
I’m going to be super detailed cause I know for my first procedure I was really sweating the small silly stuff, like how to enter the clinic and let them know who you are and stuff. It’s just that I read so many online experiences about getting the procedures itself in Korea, but little about what happens before it.
I contacted the clinic on their kakao, saying that I have seen their babitalk deal. I contacted them in Korean using my translator. Their deal was back in March, and I asked if I could have the deal in May. They said yes, if I paid a 500k won deposit. I did, using bitcoin (my first time using bitcoin!) since I didn’t know any other way of transferring money since my bank is not Korean. They do not accept PayPal.
I arrived at 9:40AM with my translator. The lady at the counter greeted us. I said my name, she recognized me, and told us to sit down and gave us a few basic forms to fill in.
After a few minutes, I was led to a recovery room with a bed and a small wardrobe with my surgery robe and slippers to change into. I left my clothes and belongings in the wardrobe. It ended up not being lockable so I gave it to the consultant for safekeeping – my reasoning was if I trust them with my health/body, I trust them with my bag haha.
I was then led to another room, accompanied by my translator. The consultant then started talking to me about my concerns, and showing me some before and after pictures. I also asked a few basic questions (which I don’t really remember now). I asked about baby hairs because I like the look of them, and she said that they sort the hairs by thickness and transplant the thinnest hairs closest o the face to mimic baby hairs. Anyway, she said that I had a wide forehead, and told me information about the procedure I already knew.
I then paid the consultant in cash. I knew the price beforehand, so I had counted out the money and separated them into bundles of 1 million won. My translator asked if I could get 10% off because of the tax refund, and she said yes.
After, the consultant led us to a room with the doctor. The consultant had to leave sometimes, but she stayed for about 70% of the time.
The doctor said that I had a wide but short forehead, which surprised me. I always thought I had a wide and tall forehead. He said that my forehead was actually about 0.5-1cm shorter than average. The consultant said earlier that my forehead juts out a bit at the top right underneath my hairline, which makes it look taller, which the doctor agrees with.
He drew a design on my forehead using marker. The design is deliberately a choppy line, to mimic a natural hairline. Once he’s done, he asked what I thought about it, and I said it could be drawn lower and he does that. He also mentions that during the procedure, they’ll stop when they’re nearly done and ask the patient to choose whether to continue or not. Usually, once the patient sees the hair actually in, they’ll see that it’s a significant difference and not want the hairline lowered further.
The doctor also took photos of me in various angles.
The consultant then bought me to the surgery room, where the nurses take my blood.
I lied face-down on a pillow with a hole in it so they can extract the hair from the back of my scalp (around the same height as where your ears are). They shave my hair (which is an interesting feeling, seeing I’ve never shaved my head before!) Then the doctor injected local anesthetic which HURT SO MUCH. I thought I had a high pain tolerance but oh man. I thought the needles were boring into my skull. They had to numb a large area too, so there were like 20 injections. However, nearing the end of the injections, they started hurting less because the anesthetic is kicking in.
Then they start extracting the hair. I couldn’t feel anything at all so pretty much zoned out for 20 minutes. Then they stitched and bandaged me up. When I got up I almost fell though, don’t know if that has to do with anything. There was also a pile of bloody gauze and a clump of my hair in the bin.
Now it’s time for transplanting the hair. I’m now on my back, they lightly sedate me. Sedation is optional, it just makes your mind woozy and sleepy so time passes faster. The full procedure is 4 hours, but it felt like 2. I had my first trippy experience haha, but I didn’t the last time I got sedated. Felt like the changing geometrical shapes from The Less I Know the Better music video by Tame Imapala haha.
Back on track. They cover your eyes with a cloth (to protect you from bright lights and also stop you from awkwardly staring at the doctonurses since you have nothing else to do haha) but you can hear everything. It sounds like staples when they transplant the hair follicle into your skin. Since I’m a creepo and I was trying to see everything that was going on under the cloth, I gleaned that the doctor was doing the transplanting. One nurse was responsible for passing the hair follicles (which are in this plastic syringe looking thing) and adjusting them so they can be used by the doctor immediately, and then disposing it somewhere as soon as the doctor was done (there are thousands of hair follicles to be transplanted, so she works quick). Another nurse was sitting at the side who seemed to be sorting out follicles by size. I could hear another nurse as well, but don’t know what he/she was doing. Also, they listen to kpop and some radio show while they operate on you.
Aside from sounding like staples, it feels like someone’s stapling you too. But it doesn’t hurt. Like it feels like someone put a layer of cloth against your skin and was stapling that, so you feel it but it doesn’t hurt at all. Twice during the early stages of the procedure, I let the doctor know that I could feel a tiny bit of pain (like a 2/10 on the pain scale, nothing compared to the local anesthetic injections earlier ) and he would inject local anesthetic and it would go away pretty much instantly.
This continued for quite a long time.
Then suddenly they were telling me to sit up, and my awesome translator was back (they had told her to come back 4 hours later). They handed me a mirror and I was pretty shocked – my forehead looked so small now! In fact, it looked too small.
I was kind of in shock. I looked around a bit and realized that my forehead really is of an average size now (in fact, I’d still say it’s slightly larger than my ideal) but I just wasn’t used to it because I was used to seeing myself with such a large forehead. My consultant came over and said that more could be added to the sides, which I agreed with. So they lay me down again and had another 5 minute of transplanting, and I was happy.
Went back to the recovery room, but no downtime is really needed. I just got changed, got my pills and aftercare instructions from a nurse, who also gave me a hilarious badass rapper looking beanie which I could wear back when in public. Thank god I lived a walking distance away!
I can wash my hair everyday, just gently. They also provide professional hair washing services, which I’m doing tomorrow. My stitches from the back of my head will be removed in 10 days.
The transplanted hair is about an inch long right now. They will fall out after 2 weeks, and then it’ll look like I never had a hair transplant. Then 3-4 months later, they’ll start growing back.
submitted by psthrowaway5572 to AsianBeauty [link] [comments]

I talked to my local paper about accepting Bitcoin (Delaware)

Howdy folks, my name is Gentle Jones and I am an underground Hip-Hop artist from Delaware. I recently started accepting Bitcoin for records and our local Gannet newspaper (The News Journal) included me in an interesting article about the currency.
Thought you all might enjoy seeing how Bitcoin is taking hold in Delaware. You may have already read our Senators supporting it in the news lately.
http://www.delawareonline.com/article/20140113/BUSINESS08/301130020
Speed and lower costs give Bitcoin appeal with users Written by Wade Malcolm The News Journal Jan. 13, 2014 delawareonline.com
A local underground hip-hop artist. A Libertarian business owner who predicts the collapse of the dollar and a worldwide economic meltdown. A United States senator from Delaware.
What do these three people have in common? They’re all interested in Bitcoin.
For the uninitiated, Bitcoin is the so-called virtual or crypto currency that has gained in popularity and value since it was created in 2009, particularly in the past year. It’s used widely as a faster, cheaper way to conduct digital transactions for smaller online retailers.
And it has gained in mainstream acceptance, with recent announcements that home furnishing products seller Overstock.com and gaming company Zynga will start accepting Bitcoin. But it’s also been linked to money laundering and other illegal activity, including the online black market known as Silk Road.
Throughout 2013, U.S. Sen. Tom Carper, D-Del., held a series of hearings on virtual currency in his position as chairman of the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.
His overall impression after listening to the testimony: Government might need to take an active role to prevent the ways Bitcoin can be abused, like any currency, but it has great potential to benefit society. And it would be wrong to have a government clampdown squash it, he said.
“It lowers the cost of transactions in some cases, and in some cases, it allows people that live in different countries to be able to trade with one another more easily,” he said. “One aspect of facilitating trade is financing trade, and it will be interesting to see what role virtual currency can play in facilitating trade between nations. We never would have thought we could use these tiny cellphones to do so many things.”
Like Carper, many have come to see Bitcoin as the next evolution of technology –a tool to eliminate an inefficiency in the marketplace.
Some economists say the currency innovation also could threaten the dominance in online transaction of a key Delaware industry: credit cards. Card companies might charge 2 percent or 3 percent to process a larger online transaction, and an even higher flat fee for smaller transactions. Bitcoin fees are miniscule by comparison, around 0.02 percent.
Using a checking account is cheaper, but also slower, since the payment must go through a clearinghouse that serves as an intermediary between financial institutions.
“In 2014, should it take two or three days to send money from me to you when I’m a Bank of America customer and you’re a Chase customer? I would say no. Maybe if this was 1998 that would be OK,” said Susan Athey, a professor of economics at Stanford’s Graduate School of Business. Bitcoin “will force the banks to learn how to move money more efficiently between accounts. But there’s lots of ways this could play out that are very disruptive to banks and credit cards.”
Local financial institutions have been hard at work developing their own systems for mobile payments. The Delaware card business of JPMorgan Chase and Wilmington-based savings bank Capital One 360 have platforms for transferring money between bank account, but they still take more than a day if the money is going to an outside institution. Wilmington-based Barclaycard US has piloted a mobile payment app called bPay that being tested in business through Wilmington and Newark.
Skeptics of Bitcoin point out that the currency’s whole infrastructure –essentially crowd-sourced and unsupported by any government –could collapse some day and become worthless. Bitcoin supporters counter that such risks exist with any monetary system and in fact many currencies have collapsed throughout history.
If you ask Doug Campbell, Bitcoin is more likely to outlive the dollar due to the escalating nation debt. A staunch Libertarian who ran for Delaware attorney general in 2010, Campbell holds about 20 different crypto currencies and has used Bitcoin to invest in silver.
“I know the dollar is going to be dead, so the only question for me is what’s going to replace it,” Campbell said. “It is the free market, man. And Bitcoin is the free market at work.”
Campbell is a believer in Bitcoin because it’s protected against inflation, he said. About 21 million Bitcoin exist, and no more will ever be made.
Others are less philosophical in their use of the currency. Local underground rapper and singer Bill “Gentle Jones” Ferrell started accepting Bitcoin for sales of music and merchandise on his website. ( www.coingig.com/gentlejones ) The decision lowered his costs, and there’s something appealing about taking a new-wave payment system to sell vinyl records.
“Maybe it is funny that I’m selling an analog technology with a digital currency. But it all comes down to what do people value,” he said.
“For any currency, whether it’s beads or clam shells or coins or paper, all you need is two people that agree it has value and do business with it. It’s all an abstraction.”
WHAT IS BITCOIN?
Bitcoin is considered a “virtual” or “crypto” currency that no government or monetary authority has approved, regulated or guaranteed. It was created by an anonymous computer programmer –or programmers –known only as Satoshi Nakamoto. Essentially, a Bitcoin is an open-source string of computer code that is unique to every unit of Bitcoin. This ensures no one can counterfeit or steal Bitcoin. The currency allows users to conduct online transactions faster and with lower fees compared with using a checking account or credit card. Once someone receives a Bitcoin, he or she easily can exchange it for U.S. dollars or other currency.
submitted by gentlejones to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Reddit (stylized as reddit, /ˈrɛdɪt/)[5] is a social news aggregation, web content rating, and discussion website. Reddit's registered community members can submit content, such as text posts or direct links.

Registered users can then vote submissions up or down to organize the posts and determine their position on the site's pages. The submissions with the most positive votes appear on the front page or the top of a category. Content entries are organized by areas of interest called "subreddits". The subreddit topics include news, science, gaming, movies, music, books, fitness, food, and image-sharing, among many others. The site's terms of use prohibit behaviors such as harassment, and moderating and limiting harassment has taken substantial resources.[6]
As of 2016, Reddit had 542 million monthly visitors (234 million unique users), ranking #11 most visited web-site in US and #25 in the world.[7] Across 2015, Reddit saw 82.54 billion pageviews, 73.15 million submissions, 725.85 million comments, and 6.89 billion upvotes from its users.[8]
Reddit was founded by University of Virginia roommates Steve Huffman and Alexis Ohanian in 2005. Condé Nast Publications acquired the site in October 2006. Reddit became a direct subsidiary of Condé Nast's parent company, Advance Publications, in September 2011. As of August 2012, Reddit operates as an independent entity, although Advance is still its largest shareholder.[9] Reddit is based in San Francisco, California. In October 2014, Reddit raised $50 million in a funding round led by Sam Altman and including investors Marc Andreessen, Peter Thiel, Ron Conway, Snoop Dogg, and Jared Leto.[10] Their investment saw the company valued at $500 million.[11][12]
Contents
1 Description 1.1 Site 1.2 Users 1.3 Subreddits 1.3.1 IAmA and AMA 1.3.2 /science 1.3.3 April Fools subreddits 1.3.3.1 The Button 1.3.3.2 Robin 2 History 3 Technology 4 Demographics 5 Community and culture 5.1 Philanthropic efforts 5.2 Commercial activity 5.3 Reddit effect 5.4 "Restoring Truthiness" campaign 5.5 Controversies 5.5.1 2010 5.5.2 2011 5.5.3 2013 5.5.4 2014 5.5.5 2015 5.5.6 2016 6 Other 7 See also 8 References 9 External links 
Description Site
The site is a collection of entries submitted by its registered users, essentially a bulletin board system. The name "Reddit" is a play-on-words with the phrase "read it", i.e., "I read it on Reddit."[13] The site's content is divided into numerous categories, and 49 such categories, or "default subreddits", are visible on the front page to new users and those who browse the site without logging in to an account. As of May 2016, these include:[14] Category Subreddits Educational News, Science, Space, DataIsBeautiful, TodayILearned, WorldNews Entertainment Creepy, Documentaries, Gaming, ListenToThis, Movies, Music, NoSleep, Sports, Television, Videos Discussion-based AskReddit, AskScience, Books, ExplainLikeImFive, History, IAmA, TwoXChromosomes Humolight-hearted Funny, InternetIsBeautiful, Jokes, NotTheOnion, ShowerThoughts, TIFU, UpliftingNews Image sharing Art, Aww, EarthPorn, Gifs, MildlyInteresting, OldSchoolCool, PhotoshopBattles, Pics Self-improvement DIY, Food, GetMotivated, LifeProTips, PersonalFinance, Philosophy, WritingPrompts Technology Futurology, Gadgets Meta Announcements, Blog
Note: There are over 11,400 active subreddits[15][16][17] with a default set of 50 subreddits as of February 2016. 
When items (links or text posts) are submitted to a subreddit, the users, called "redditors",[18] can vote for or against them (upvote/downvote). Each subreddit has a front page that shows newer submissions that have been rated highly. Redditors can also post comments about the submission, and respond back and forth in a conversation-tree of comments; the comments themselves can also be upvoted and downvoted. The front page of the site itself shows a combination of the highest-rated posts out of all the subreddits a user is subscribed to.
Front-page rank – for both the general front page and for individual subreddits – is determined by the age of the submission, positive ("upvoted") to negative ("downvoted") feedback ratio and the total vote-count.[19] Dozens of submissions cycle through these front pages daily.
The site's logo and mascot is a line drawing of an alien nicknamed "Snoo". Subreddits often use themed variants of Snoo relevant to the subject.[20]
Although most of the site functions like a bulletin board or message board, each subreddit has the option of having an associated wiki that can provide supplementary material like instructions, recommended reading, or collaboration for real-life events. Users
Registering an account with Reddit is free and does not require an email address to complete. As of June 2015, there were 36 million user accounts.[21] When logged in, Reddit users (known as redditors) have the ability to vote on submissions and comments to increase or decrease their visibility and submit links and comments. Users can also create their own subreddit on a topic of their choosing, and interested users can add it to their frontpage by subscribing to it. For example, as of May 2015, the Wikipedia subreddit – subtitled "the most interesting pages on Wikipedia" – has over 151,000 subscribers.[22] Reddit comments and submissions are occasionally abbreviated and peppered with terms that are understood within (and in many cases also outside) the Reddit community, ranging from OP (for "original poster" – the user who posted the submission being commented upon) to NSFW (for "not safe for work" – indicating the post has graphic or sexually explicit content).[23] Users earn "post karma" and "comment karma" for submitting text posts, link posts, and comments, which accumulate as point values on their user profile. "Post karma" refers to karma points received from text and link posts, while "comment karma" refers to karma points received from comments. Users may also be gifted "Reddit gold" if another user has well received the comment or post, generally due to humorous or high quality content; this process is known as "gilding." Reddit has also created a system of points called "creddits". Reddit gold "creddits" are like gift certificates: each creddit you have allows you to give one month of Reddit gold to someone else. The points do not lead to a prize as they are meant to stand in as a badge of honor for the user among their peers, although redditors have attempted to redeem their points before.[24]
Reddit also allows submissions that do not link externally. These are called "self posts" or "text submissions". Many discussion-based subreddits allow only text-only submissions such as "AskReddit" – where users are only allowed to pose broad, discussion based questions to the community at large. Self posts previously did not accumulate karma points for the submitter, but as of July, 2016, these text only posts generate karma.[25] Mister Splashy Pants logo used on November 27, 2007
Reddit communities occasionally coordinate Reddit-external projects such as skewing polls on other websites, such as in 2007 when Greenpeace allowed web users to decide the name of a humpback whale it was tracking. Reddit users voted en masse to name the whale "Mr. Splashy Pants", and Reddit administrators further encouraged this by changing the site logo to a whale during the voting. In December of that year, Mister Splashy Pants was announced as the winner of the competition.[26]
Within the site, redditors commemorate their "cake day" once a year, which is the anniversary of the day the user's account was first created. The "cake day" offers no special benefit, except that a small icon representing a slice of cake appears next to that user's name for 24 hours.[27] Redditors can "friend" one another, which gives a redditor quick access to posting and comments of their friend list. The commenting system and friend system, along with a certain "Reddit ethos" (called reddiquette on Reddit), lend Reddit aspects of a social networking service, though not to the extent of Facebook, Google+, and other websites aimed at providing social networking services. The Reddit community also socializes at meetups held at local parks and bars around the world,[28] and many localized subreddits for local in-person meetings exist. Subreddits
Reddit entries are organized into areas of interest called "subreddits". Originally, the front page was the "main-reddit", and other areas were "subreddits". There is now no longer a single main-reddit. Instead, there are now 50 "default subreddits" dealing with topics such as books, television, and music, and thousands of additional non-default subreddits. The default subreddits are the 50 subreddits which are first recommended to new users to select from to appear on, or via their customizable top menu bars. All new users are initially automatically "subscribed to" the 50 default subreddits, but can then customize their "subscriptions."
Any registered user who has maintained an account for 31 days or more may create a non-default subreddit.[29] There are over 11,400 active total subreddits to peruse,[15][16][17] including the default set of 50 subreddits as of February 2016. The site has a default "Front Page" which contains staff selected popular articles, and also an "All Page" which contains only the very top ranked article/ subreddits as ranked by readers themselves, and which page is accessible via an "All" link at the top of the "Front Page."
In an interview with Memeburn, Reddit GM, Martin noted that the platform's "approach is to give the community moderators or curators as much control as possible so that they can shape and cultivate the type of communities they want".[30] IAmA and AMA
One of the most popular subreddits is IAmA ("I Am A") where a user may post "AMAs" (for "Ask Me Anything"), or similarly "AMAAs" (for "Ask Me Almost/Absolutely Anything") – prompts for others to ask questions about any topic. AMAs are open to all Reddit users, and use the site's comment system for both questions and answers; it is similar to a press conference but online. This subreddit was founded in May 2009.[31] From 2013 to 2015, Victoria Taylor assisted reddit's volunteer community in presenting interviews.[32][33][34]
A number of notable individuals have participated in the IAmA subreddit, including United States President Barack Obama[35][36] (while campaigning for the 2012 election), Dave Grohl,[37] Madonna,[38] Chris Hadfield[39] (who answered questions from the International Space Station), Bill Gates,[40] Ron Paul,[41] Stephen Colbert,[42] Psy, Enya, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Rachel Maddow, Renée Fleming, M. Shadows, Louis C.K., Roger Federer, Larry King, Philip Zimbardo, Bill Nye,[43] Stan Lee, John Mather, David Copperfield, Paul Krugman, Danny Boyle, rapper J. Cole,[44] Al Gore, Roger Ebert, Michael Bolton, Gary Johnson, Lawrence Krauss, Jill Stein, Kevin Rudd, Julie Benz,[45] Amanda Palmer,[46] Tim Ferriss,[47] Gordon Ramsay,[48] Peter Dinklage,[49] Chandra Wickramasinghe,[50] Neil deGrasse Tyson,[51] and Bernie Sanders.[52] Donald Trump (during his 2016 Presidential Campaign) had an AMA on /The Donald subreddit.[53] As of April 2015, Barack Obama's AMA is the highest rated on the site;[54] the increased traffic brought down many parts of the website when the AMA occurred on August 29, 2012.[55]
Celebrities participating in IAmAs have seen both positive and negative responses. Woody Harrelson's[56] AMA was criticized after Harrelson declined to answer questions that were unrelated to the movie Rampart he was promoting.[57] In contrast, rapper Snoop Dogg attracted 1.6 million page views[58] after conducting an AMA that provided several candid responses to the community's questions.[59]
Other than Harrelson's, Bollywood actress Priyanka Chopra's[60] AMA was criticized for evasiveness when she focused on promoting her upcoming album to the detriment of other questions. A particularly well received AMA of 2014 was that of Peter Dinklage,[61] best known for his role as Tyrion Lannister in the HBO drama series Game of Thrones. Redditors attribute the thread's success to the thoroughness of his responses and the fact that he stayed online much longer than he was expected to so he could spend more time with his fans. The actor departed by commenting:
This feels like being interviewed by a hundred thousand news anchors at once! But much friendlier anchors...who seem to know their material...I really appreciate everyone's enthusiasm and questions. I tried to move another engagement to make more time but it's really hard during shoots. I am going to try to answer a few more short ones now. And remember: If you see me on the street and want a photo, ask! It's just weird when your kid asks for directions.[62] 
On July 2, 2015, hundreds of subreddits, including several with over a million subscribers, were set to private by their respective moderators after Reddit's director of talent, Victoria Taylor, was dismissed.[63][64][65][66] Sources close to Reddit cited an increased focus on commercializing AMAs as the most likely reason.[67][68] /science File:American Chemical Society - What Chemists Do - Nathan Allen.webmPlay media Nathan Allen speaks about /science to the American Chemical Society Main article: /science
/science is an Internet forum on Reddit where the community of participants discuss science topics.[69] A popular feature of the forum is "Ask me Anything" (AMA) public discussions.[69] As of 2014, /science attracted 30,000-100,000 visitors per day, making it the largest community-managed science forum and an attractive place to host discussions.[69] April Fools subreddits The Button Main article: The Button (Reddit)
On April Fools' Day 2015, a social experiment was launched in the form of a subreddit called "thebutton". It featured a button and a 60-second countdown timer. User accounts created before that day were eligible to participate. A user could only ever click the button once, or opt not to click it. If a user clicked the button the timer was globally reset to 60 seconds,[70] and the user's "flair" (an icon next to the user's name) changed color. Colors were assigned based on a gradient from purple to red with purple signifying up to 60 seconds and red as low as 0 seconds. The countdown prematurely reached zero several times due to technical problems but eventually expired without further problems on June 5, 2015, after which the subreddit was archived.[71] Robin
On April Fools' Day 2016, a social experiment was launched in the form of a chat widget named Robin. After clicking the "Robin" button, an IRC-like chat window was initially opened with one other redditor and giving a certain time to pick between three options, "Grow," "Stay" and "Abandon".[72] "Grow" would join the chat with another group, "Stay" would close the group chat and create a subreddit with that group as moderators and "Abandon" would close the group chat and everyone goes back to a group of two. History Further information: Timeline of Reddit Co-founder Alexis Ohanian speaking in 2009
In June 2005,[73] Reddit was founded in Medford, Massachusetts by Steve Huffman and Alexis Ohanian, both 22-year-old graduates of the University of Virginia.[74] The team expanded to include Christopher Slowe in November 2005. Between November 2005 and January 2006 Reddit merged with Aaron Swartz's company Infogami, and Swartz became an equal owner of the resulting parent company, Not A Bug.[75][76] Condé Nast Publications, owner of Wired, acquired Reddit on October 31, 2006, and the team moved to San Francisco.[77] In January 2007, Swartz was fired.[78]
By the end of 2008, the team had grown to include Erik Martin, Jeremy Edberg,[79] David King,[80] and Mike Schiraldi.[81] In 2009, Huffman and Ohanian moved on to form Hipmunk, recruiting Slowe[82] and King[83] shortly thereafter. In May 2010, Reddit was named in Lead411's "2010 Hottest San Francisco Companies" list.[84] In July 2010, after explosive traffic growth, Reddit introduced Reddit Gold, offering new features for a price of $3.99/month or $29.99/year.[85] Reddit Gold adds a number of features to the interface, including the ability to display more comments on a page, access to the private "lounge" subreddit, and notifications whenever one's username is mentioned in a comment. It's also possible to endow comments or submissions of other users and thereby give a gold membership to them as an anonymous present.[86]
On September 6, 2011, Reddit became operationally independent of Condé Nast, now operating as a separate subsidiary of its parent company, Advance Publications.[87] On January 11, 2012, Reddit announced that it would be participating in a 12-hour sitewide blackout in protest of the Stop Online Piracy Act.[88] The blackout occurred on January 18 and coincided with the blackouts of Wikipedia and several other websites. In May 2012, Reddit joined the Internet Defense League, a group formed to organize future protests.[89] On February 14, 2013, Reddit began accepting the digital currency bitcoin for its Reddit Gold subscription service through a partnership with bitcoin payment processor Coinbase.[90]
In October 2014, Reddit announced Redditmade, a service which allowed moderators to create merchandise for their subreddits. Redditmade closed in February 2015.[91] In November 2014, Chief Executive Yishan Wong resigned and co-founder Ohanian returned as the full-time executive chairman. Ellen Pao, Reddit's business and partnerships strategist became the interim chief executive.[92] On July 10, 2015, Pao resigned and was replaced by Steve Huffman as CEO.[93][94]
In October 2015, Reddit announced a news portal called Upvoted, designed to broaden the reach of Reddit as a standalone site featuring editorial content from Reddit users.[95] In April 2016, Reddit launched a new blocking tool in an attempt to curb online harassment. The tool allows a user to hide posts and comments from selected redditors in addition to blocking private messages from those redditors.[96] The option to block a redditor is done by clicking a button in the inbox. Technology
Reddit was originally written in Common Lisp but was rewritten in Python in December 2005.[4] The reasons given for the switch were wider access to code libraries and greater development flexibility. The Python web framework that former Reddit employee Swartz developed to run the site, web.py, is now available as an open-source project.[97] On June 18, 2008, Reddit became an open source project.[98] With the exception of the anti-spam/cheating portions, all of the code and libraries written for Reddit became freely available on GitHub.[99] As of November 10, 2009, Reddit uses Pylons as its web framework.[100]
As of November 10, 2009, Reddit has decommissioned their physical servers and migrated to Amazon Web Services.[101] Reddit uses PostgreSQL as their primary datastore and is slowly moving to Apache Cassandra, a column-oriented datastore. It uses RabbitMQ for offline processing, HAProxy for load balancing and memcached for caching. In early 2009, Reddit started using jQuery.[102] On June 7, 2010, Reddit staff launched a revamped mobile interface featuring rewritten CSS, a new color scheme, and a multitude of improvements.[103]
On July 21, 2010, Reddit outsourced the Reddit search engine to Flaptor, who used its search product IndexTank.[104] As of July 12, 2012, Reddit uses Amazon CloudSearch.[105] There are several unofficial applications that use the Reddit API in the Google Play store, and F-Droid repository. Examples include: Reddit is Fun,[106] Andreddit,[107] F5, BaconReader,[108] Reddit Sync[109] and an Android tablet specific application called Reddita.[110] There are also several Windows apps used to access Reddit, including unofficial Reddit apps such as ReddHub[111] and Reddit To Go!.[112] An unofficial desktop application Reditr[113] exists that is compatible with Windows, OS X, Linux and ChromeOS.
There are several Reddit applications for iOS. These include Karma, Upvote, iReddit, iPad-specific applications such as Reddzine and Biscuit, and, until April 2016, Alien Blue.[114] In September 2014, an official mobile application for browsing AMA (Ask Me Anything) threads was released for the iOS and Android platforms under the name Ask me Anything.[115] In October 2014, Alien Blue was acquired by Reddit and became the official iOS Reddit app.[116] In April 2016, Reddit released an official application called Reddit: The Official App, which is available on Google Play and the iOS App Store, and Alien Blue was removed from the App Store in favor of the new app.[117] Demographics
According to Reddit's Audience and Demographics page, as of December 2015, 53% of redditors are male and 54% are from the United States.[118] In 2013 Pewinternet.org stated that 6% of all American adult Internet users have used Reddit; that males were twice as likely to be redditors as females were; and that Reddit's largest age bracket was between the ages of 18 and 29.[119] Community and culture
The website is known for its open nature and diverse user community that generate its content.[120] Its demographics allows for wide-ranging subject areas, or main subreddits, that receive much attention, as well as the ability for smaller subreddits to serve more niche purposes. For example, the University of Reddit, a subreddit that exists to communally teach, emerged from the ability to enter and leave the online forum, the "classroom", at will, and classes ranging from computer science to music, to fine art theory exist.[121] The unique possibilities that subreddits provide create new opportunities for raising attention and fostering discussion across many areas. In gaining popularity in terms of unique users per day, Reddit has been a platform for many to raise publicity for a number of causes. And with that increased ability to garner attention and a large audience, users can use one of the largest communities on the Internet for new, revolutionary, and influential purposes.[122]
Its popularity has enabled users to take unprecedented advantage of such a large community. Its innovative socially ranked rating and sorting system drives a method that is useful for fulfilling certain goals of viewership or simply finding answers to interesting questions. User sentiments about the website's function and structure include feelings about the breadth and depth of the discussions on Reddit and how the site makes it easy to discover new and interesting items. Almost all of the user reviews on Alexa.com, which rates Reddit's monthly unique traffic rating 125th in the United States, mention Reddit's "good content" as a likable quality. However, others raise the negative aspects of the potential for Reddit's communities to possess a "hive mind" of sorts,[123] embodying some negative aspects of group interaction theories like crowd psychology and collective consciousness. Philanthropic efforts
Reddit has been known as the instigator of several charity projects, some short and others long-term, in order to benefit others. A selection of major events are outlined below:
In early October 2010, a story was posted on Reddit about a seven-year-old girl, Kathleen Edward, who was in the advanced stages of Huntington's disease. The girl's neighbors were taunting her and her family. Redditors banded together and gave the girl a shopping spree[124][125] at Tree Town Toys, a toy store local to the story owned by a Reddit user. In early December 2010, members of the Christianity subreddit decided to hold a fundraiser[126] and later members of the atheism subreddit decided to give some friendly competition,[127] cross-promoting[128] fundraising drives for Doctors Without Borders and World Vision's Clean Water Fund, respectively. Later, the Islam subreddit joined in, raising money for Islamic Relief. In less than a week, the three communities (as well as the Reddit community at large) raised over $50,000.[129] Most of this was raised by the atheism subreddit, though the smaller Christianity subreddit had a higher average donation amount per subscriber.[130] A similar donation drive in 2011 saw the atheism subreddit raise over $200,000 for charity.[131] Reddit started the largest Secret Santa program in the world, which is still in operation to date. For the 2010 Holiday season, 92 countries were involved in the Secret Santa program. There were 17,543 participants, and $662,907.60 was collectively spent on gift purchases and shipping costs.[132][133][134] In 2014, about 200,000 users from 188 countries participated.[135] Several Celebrities have participated in the program, including Bill Gates[136] and Snoop Dogg.[137] Eventually, the Secret Santa program expanded to various other occasions through Redditgifts. Members from Reddit donated over $600,000 to DonorsChoose in support of Stephen Colbert's March to Keep Fear Alive. The donation spree broke previous records for the most money donated to a single cause by the Reddit community and resulted in an interview with Colbert on Reddit.[138] Reddit users donated $185,356 to Direct Relief for Haiti after an earthquake devastated the nation in January 2010.[139] Reddit users donated over $70,000 to the Faraja Orphanage in the first 24 hours to help secure the orphanage after intruders robbed and attacked one of the volunteers, who survived a strike to the head from a machete.[140] In October 2012, "Shitty Watercolour", a popular Redditor known for posting watercolor paintings on the website,[141][142][143] streamed live a 12-hour painting session on YouTube to raise money for charity: water, a non-profit organization which aims to provide potable drinking water in developing countries. Redditors donated a minimum of $10 to have a photo of their choice painted in a 5 by 5 centimetres (2.0 by 2.0 in) square section of large sheets of paper.[144][145] The paint-a-thon raised $2,700.[146] In February 2014, Reddit announced it would be donating 10% of its annual ad revenue to non-profits voted upon by its users.[147] Reddit continued this policy for 2015, donating $82,765 each to Electronic Frontier Foundation, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Doctors Without Borders, Erowid Center, Wikimedia Foundation, Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, NPR, Free Software Foundation, Freedom From Religion Foundation, and Tor Project.[148] In response to the 2015 Nepal Earthquake, redditors raised more than $145,000 for Direct Relief and more than $110,000 for MAP International.[149] 
Commercial activity
In February 2013, Betabeat published a post that recognized the influx of multi-national corporations like Costco, Taco Bell, Subaru, and McDonald's posting branded content on Reddit that was made to appear as if it was original content from legitimate Reddit users.[150] Reddit's former Director of Communications noted that while a large number of Chief Marketing Officers want to "infiltrate the reddit community on behalf of their brand," she emphasized that "self-promotion is frowned upon" and the site is "100 percent organic."[151][152][153][154] She recommended that advertisers design promotions that "spark conversations and feedback."[155] She recommended that businesses use AMAs to get attention for public figures but cautioned "It is important to approach AMAs carefully and be aware that this may not be a fit for every project or client."[156] Nissan ran a successful Branded content promotion offering users free gifts to publicize a new car,[157][158] though the company was later ridiculed for suspected astroturfing when the CEO only answered puff piece questions on the site.[159][160] Taylor described these situations as "high risk" noting "We try hard to educate people that they have to treat questions that may seem irreverent or out of left field the same as they would questions about the specific project they are promoting."[161]
Reddit's users are more privacy-conscious than on other websites, using tools like AdBlock and proxies,[162] and they hate "feeling manipulated by brands" but respond well to "content that begs for intelligent viewers and participants."[163] Lauren Orsini writes in ReadWrite that "Reddit's huge community is the perfect hype machine for promoting a new movie, a product release, or a lagging political campaign" but "very specific set of etiquette. Redditors don't want to advertise for you, they want to talk to you."[164] Journalists have used the site as a basis for stories, though they are advised by the site's policies to respect that "reddit's communities belong to their members" and to seek proper attribution for people's contributions.[165]
Reddit announced that they would begin using VigLink to redirect affiliate links in June 2016.[166] Reddit effect Main article: Slashdot effect
Also known as the "Slashdot effect", the Reddit effect occurs when a smaller website has a high influx of traffic after being linked to on Reddit.[167] It is also called the "Reddit Hug of Death" among the website's users. Because Reddit is such a large site, the traffic is immense and can easily crash smaller sites. In order for users to see crashed websites, several Reddit bots have been created that take a snapshot of the website before large amounts of traffic flood the affected website. "Restoring Truthiness" campaign
As a response to Glenn Beck's August 28, 2010, Restoring Honor rally (heavily promoted by him in his Fox News broadcasts during the summer), in September 2010 Reddit users started a movement to persuade Stephen Colbert to have a counter-rally in Washington, D.C.[168] The movement, which came to be called "Restoring Truthiness", was started by user mrsammercer, in a post where he described waking up from a dream in which Stephen Colbert was holding a satirical rally in D.C.[169] He writes, "This would be the high water mark of American satire. Half a million people pretending to suspend all rational thought in unison. Perfect harmony. It'll feel like San Francisco in the late 60s, only we won't be able to get any acid."
The idea resonated with the Reddit community, which launched a campaign to bring the event to life. Over $600,000[170] was raised for charity to gain the attention of Colbert. The campaign was mentioned on-air several times, and when the Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear was held in Washington, D.C. on October 30, 2010, thousands of redditors made the journey.[171]
During a post-rally press conference, Reddit co-founder Ohanian asked, "What role did the Internet campaign play in convincing you to hold this rally?" Jon Stewart responded by saying that, though it was a very nice gesture, the two had already thought of the idea prior and the deposit on using the National Mall was already paid during the summer, so it acted mostly as a "validation of what we were thinking about attempting".[172] In a message to the Reddit community, Colbert later added, "I have no doubt that your efforts to organize and the joy you clearly brought to your part of the story contributed greatly to the turnout and success."[173]
See also
General
Crowdsourcing Internet culture PTT Bulletin Board System Social bookmarking Unidan Web 2.0 iconInternet portal 
Similar websites
Delicious Digg Diigo Fark Imzy Kuro5hin MetaFilter StumbleUpon Voat 
submitted by NERDSLAYER_Y2K to Negareddit [link] [comments]

Second.

Reddit (stylized as reddit, /ˈrɛdɪt/)[5] is an American social news aggregation, web content rating, and discussion website. Reddit's registered community members can submit content, such as text posts or direct links. Registered users can then vote submissions up or down to organize the posts and determine their position on the site's pages. The submissions with the most positive votes appear on the front page or the top of a category. Content entries are organized by areas of interest called "subreddits". The subreddit topics include news, science, gaming, movies, music, books, fitness, food, and image-sharing, among many others. The site's terms of use prohibit behaviors such as harassment, and moderating and limiting harassment has taken substantial resources.[6]
As of 2017, Reddit had 542 million monthly visitors (234 million unique users), ranking #7 most visited web-site in US and #22 in the world.[7] Across 2015, Reddit saw 82.54 billion pageviews, 73.15 million submissions, 725.85 million comments, and 6.89 billion upvotes from its users.[8]
Reddit was founded by University of Virginia roommates Steve Huffman and Alexis Ohanian in 2005. Condé Nast Publications acquired the site in October 2006. Reddit became a direct subsidiary of Condé Nast's parent company, Advance Publications, in September 2011. As of August 2012, Reddit operates as an independent entity, although Advance is still its largest shareholder.[9] Reddit is based in San Francisco, California. In October 2014, Reddit raised $50 million in a funding round led by Sam Altman and including investors Marc Andreessen, Peter Thiel, Ron Conway, Snoop Dogg, and Jared Leto.[10] Their investment saw the company valued at $500 million.[11][12]
Contents
1 Description 1.1 Site 1.2 Users 1.3 Subreddits 1.3.1 IAmA and AMA 1.3.2 /science 1.3.3 April Fools subreddits 1.3.3.1 The Button 1.3.3.2 Robin 2 History 3 Technology 4 Demographics 5 Community and culture 5.1 Philanthropic efforts 5.2 Commercial activity 5.3 Reddit effect 5.4 "Restoring Truthiness" campaign 5.5 Controversies 5.5.1 2010 5.5.2 2011 5.5.3 2013 5.5.4 2014 5.5.5 2015 5.5.6 2016 5.5.7 2017 6 Other 7 See also 8 References 9 External links 
Description Site
The site is a collection of entries submitted by its registered users, essentially a bulletin board system. The name "Reddit" is a play-on-words with the phrase "read it", i.e., "I read it on Reddit."[13] The site's content is divided into numerous categories, and 49 such categories, or "default subreddits", are visible on the front page to new users and those who browse the site without logging in to an account. As of May 2016, these include:[14] Category Subreddits Educational News, Science, Space, DataIsBeautiful, TodayILearned, WorldNews Entertainment Creepy, Documentaries, Gaming, ListenToThis, Movies, Music, NoSleep, Sports, Television, Videos Discussion-based AskReddit, AskScience, Books, ExplainLikeImFive, History, IAmA, TwoXChromosomes Humolight-hearted Funny, InternetIsBeautiful, Jokes, NotTheOnion, ShowerThoughts, TIFU, UpliftingNews Image sharing Art, Aww, EarthPorn, Gifs, MildlyInteresting, OldSchoolCool, PhotoshopBattles, Pics Self-improvement DIY, Food, GetMotivated, LifeProTips, PersonalFinance, Philosophy, WritingPrompts Technology Futurology, Gadgets Meta Announcements, Blog
Note: There are over 11,400 active subreddits[15][16][17] with a default set of 50 subreddits as of February 2016. 
When items (links or text posts) are submitted to a subreddit, the users, called "redditors",[18] can vote for or against them (upvote/downvote). Each subreddit has a front page that shows newer submissions that have been rated highly. Redditors can also post comments about the submission, and respond back and forth in a conversation-tree of comments; the comments themselves can also be upvoted and downvoted. The front page of the site itself shows a combination of the highest-rated posts out of all the subreddits a user is subscribed to.
Front-page rank – for both the general front page and for individual subreddits – is determined by the age of the submission, positive ("upvoted") to negative ("downvoted") feedback ratio and the total vote-count.[19] Dozens of submissions cycle through these front pages daily.
The site's logo and its mascot is a line drawing of an alien nicknamed "Snoo". Subreddits often use themed variants of Snoo relevant to the subject.[20]
Although most of the site functions like a bulletin board or message board, each subreddit has the option of having an associated wiki that can provide supplementary material like instructions, recommended reading, or collaboration for real-life events. Users
Registering an account with Reddit is free and does not require an email address to complete. As of June 2015, there were 36 million user accounts.[21] When logged in, Reddit users (known as redditors) have the ability to vote on submissions and comments to increase or decrease their visibility and submit links and comments. Users can also create their own subreddit on a topic of their choosing, and interested users can add it to their frontpage by subscribing to it. For example, as of May 2015, the Wikipedia subreddit – subtitled "the most interesting pages on Wikipedia" – has over 151,000 subscribers.[22] Reddit comments and submissions are occasionally abbreviated and peppered with terms that are understood within (and in many cases also outside) the Reddit community, ranging from OP (for "original poster" – the user who posted the submission being commented upon) to NSFW (for "not safe for work" – indicating the post has graphic or sexually explicit content).[23] Users earn "post karma" and "comment karma" for submitting text posts, link posts, and comments, which accumulate as point values on their user profile. "Post karma" refers to karma points received from text and link posts, while "comment karma" refers to karma points received from comments. Users may also be gifted "Reddit gold" if another user has well received the comment or post, generally due to humorous or high-quality content; this process is known as "gilding." Reddit has also created a system of points called "creddits". Reddit gold "creddits" are like gift certificates: each creddit you have allows you to give one month of Reddit gold to someone else. The points do not lead to a prize as they are meant to stand in as a badge of honor for the user among their peers, although redditors have attempted to redeem their points before.[24]
Reddit also allows submissions that do not link externally. These are called "self posts" or "text submissions". Many discussion-based subreddits allow only text-only submissions such as "AskReddit" – where users are only allowed to pose broad, discussion based questions to the community at large. Self posts previously did not accumulate karma points for the submitter, but as of July, 2016, these text-only posts generate karma.[25] Mister Splashy Pants logo used on November 27, 2007
Reddit communities occasionally coordinate Reddit-external projects such as skewing polls on other websites, such as in 2007 when Greenpeace allowed web users to decide the name of a humpback whale it was tracking. Reddit users voted en masse to name the whale "Mr. Splashy Pants", and Reddit administrators further encouraged this by changing the site logo to a whale during the voting. In December of that year, Mister Splashy Pants was announced as the winner of the competition.[26]
Within the site, redditors commemorate their "cake day" once a year, which is the anniversary of the day the user's account was first created. The "cake day" offers no special benefit, except that a small icon representing a slice of cake appears next to that user's name for 24 hours.[27] Redditors can "friend" one another, which gives a redditor quick access to posting and comments of their friend list. The commenting system and friend system, along with a certain "Reddit ethos" (called reddiquette on Reddit), lend Reddit aspects of a social networking service, though not to the extent of Facebook, Google+, and other websites aimed at providing social networking services. The Reddit community also socializes at meetups held at local parks and bars around the world,[28] and many localized subreddits for local in-person meetings exist. Subreddits
Reddit entries are organized into areas of interest called "subreddits". Originally, the front page was the "main-reddit", and other areas were "subreddits". There is now no longer a single main-reddit. Instead, there are now 50 "default subreddits" dealing with topics such as books, television, and music, and thousands of additional non-default subreddits. The default subreddits are the 50 subreddits which are first recommended to new users to select from to appear on, or via their customizable top menu bars. All new users are initially automatically "subscribed to" the 50 default subreddits, but can then customize their "subscriptions."
Any registered user who has maintained an account for 31 days or more may create a non-default subreddit.[29] There are over 11,400 active total subreddits to peruse,[15][16][17] including the default set of 50 subreddits as of February 2016. The site has a default "Front Page" which contains staff selected popular articles, and also an "All Page" which contains only the very top ranked article/ subreddits as ranked by readers themselves, and which page is accessible via an "All" link at the top of the "Front Page."
In an interview with Memeburn, Reddit GM, Martin noted that the platform's "approach is to give the community moderators or curators as much control as possible so that they can shape and cultivate the type of communities they want".[30] IAmA and AMA
One of the most popular subreddits is IAmA ("I Am A") where a user may post "AMAs" (for "Ask Me Anything"), or similarly "AMAAs" (for "Ask Me Almost/Absolutely Anything") – prompts for others to ask questions about any topic. AMAs are open to all Reddit users, and use the site's comment system for both questions and answers; it is similar to a press conference but online. This subreddit was founded in May 2009.[31] From 2013 to 2015, Victoria Taylor assisted reddit's volunteer community in presenting interviews.[32][33][34]
A number of notable individuals have participated in the IAmA subreddit, including United States President Barack Obama[35][36] (while campaigning for the 2012 election), Dave Grohl,[37] Madonna,[38] Chris Hadfield[39] (who answered questions from the International Space Station), Bill Gates,[40] Ron Paul,[41] Stephen Colbert,[42] Psy, Enya, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Rachel Maddow, Robin Williams,[43] Renée Fleming, M. Shadows, Louis C.K., Roger Federer, Larry King, Philip Zimbardo, Bill Nye,[44] Stan Lee, John Mather, David Copperfield, Michael Moore, Spike Lee, Paul Krugman, Danny Boyle, rapper J. Cole,[45] Al Gore, Roger Ebert, Michael Bolton, Gary Johnson, Lawrence Krauss, Jill Stein, Kevin Rudd, Julie Benz,[46] Amanda Palmer,[47] Tim Ferriss,[48] Gordon Ramsay,[49] Peter Dinklage,[50] Chandra Wickramasinghe,[51] Neil deGrasse Tyson,[52] and Bernie Sanders.[53] Donald Trump (during his 2016 Presidential Campaign) had an AMA on /The Donald subreddit.[54] As of April 2015, Barack Obama's AMA is the highest rated on the site;[55] the increased traffic brought down many parts of the website when the AMA occurred on August 29, 2012.[56]
Celebrities participating in IAmAs have seen both positive and negative responses. Woody Harrelson's[57] AMA was criticized after Harrelson declined to answer questions that were unrelated to the movie Rampart he was promoting.[58] In contrast, rapper Snoop Dogg attracted 1.6 million page views[59] after conducting an AMA that provided several candid responses to the community's questions.[60]
Other than Harrelson's, Bollywood actress Priyanka Chopra's[61] AMA was criticized for evasiveness when she focused on promoting her upcoming album to the detriment of other questions. A particularly well received AMA of 2014 was that of Peter Dinklage,[62] best known for his role as Tyrion Lannister in the HBO drama series Game of Thrones. Redditors attribute the thread's success to the thoroughness of his responses and the fact that he stayed online much longer than he was expected to so he could spend more time with his fans. The actor departed by commenting:
This feels like being interviewed by a hundred thousand news anchors at once! But much friendlier anchors...who seem to know their material...I really appreciate everyone's enthusiasm and questions. I tried to move another engagement to make more time but it's really hard during shoots. I am going to try to answer a few more short ones now. And remember: If you see me on the street and want a photo, ask! It's just weird when your kid asks for directions.[63] 
On July 2, 2015, hundreds of subreddits, including several with over a million subscribers, were set to private by their respective moderators after Reddit's director of talent, Victoria Taylor, was dismissed.[64][65][66][67] Sources close to Reddit cited an increased focus on commercializing AMAs as the most likely reason.[68][69] /science File:American Chemical Society - What Chemists Do - Nathan Allen.webmPlay media Nathan Allen speaks about /science to the American Chemical Society Main article: /science
/science is an Internet forum on Reddit where the community of participants discuss science topics.[70] A popular feature of the forum is "Ask me Anything" (AMA) public discussions.[70] As of 2014, /science attracted 30,000–100,000 visitors per day, making it the largest community-managed science forum and an attractive place to host discussions.[70] April Fools subreddits The Button Main article: The Button (Reddit)
On April Fools' Day 2015, a social experiment was launched in the form of a subreddit called "thebutton". It featured a button and a 60-second countdown timer. User accounts created before that day were eligible to participate. A user could only ever click the button once, or opt not to click it. If a user clicked the button the timer was globally reset to 60 seconds,[71] and the user's "flair" (an icon next to the user's name) changed color. Colors were assigned based on a gradient from purple to red with purple signifying up to 60 seconds and red as low as 0 seconds. The countdown prematurely reached zero several times due to technical problems but eventually expired without further problems on June 5, 2015, after which the subreddit was archived.[72] Robin
On April Fools' Day 2016, a social experiment was launched in the form of a chat widget named Robin. After clicking the "Robin" button, an IRC-like chat window was initially opened with one other redditor and giving a certain time to pick between three options, "Grow," "Stay" and "Abandon".[73] "Grow" would join the chat with another group, "Stay" would close the group chat and create a subreddit with that group as moderators and "Abandon" would close the group chat and everyone goes back to a group of two. History Further information: Timeline of Reddit Co-founder Alexis Ohanian speaking in 2009
In June 2005,[74] Reddit was founded in Medford, Massachusetts by Steve Huffman and Alexis Ohanian, both 22-year-old graduates of the University of Virginia.[75] The team expanded to include Christopher Slowe in November 2005. Between November 2005 and January 2006 Reddit merged with Aaron Swartz's company Infogami, and Swartz became an equal owner of the resulting parent company, Not A Bug.[76][77] Condé Nast Publications, owner of Wired, acquired Reddit on October 31, 2006, and the team moved to San Francisco.[78] In January 2007, Swartz was fired.[79]
By the end of 2008, the team had grown to include Erik Martin, Jeremy Edberg,[80] David King,[81] and Mike Schiraldi.[82] In 2009, Huffman and Ohanian moved on to form Hipmunk, recruiting Slowe[83] and King[84] shortly thereafter. In May 2010, Reddit was named in Lead411's "2010 Hottest San Francisco Companies" list.[85] In July 2010, after explosive traffic growth, Reddit introduced Reddit Gold, offering new features for a price of $3.99/month or $29.99/year.[86] Reddit Gold adds a number of features to the interface, including the ability to display more comments on a page, access to the private "lounge" subreddit, and notifications whenever one's username is mentioned in a comment. It's also possible to endow comments or submissions of other users and thereby give a gold membership to them as an anonymous present.[87]
On September 6, 2011, Reddit became operationally independent of Condé Nast, now operating as a separate subsidiary of its parent company, Advance Publications.[88] On January 11, 2012, Reddit announced that it would be participating in a 12-hour sitewide blackout in protest of the Stop Online Piracy Act.[89] The blackout occurred on January 18 and coincided with the blackouts of Wikipedia and several other websites. In May 2012, Reddit joined the Internet Defense League, a group formed to organize future protests.[90] On February 14, 2013, Reddit began accepting the digital currency bitcoin for its Reddit Gold subscription service through a partnership with bitcoin payment processor Coinbase.[91]
In October 2014, Reddit announced Redditmade, a service which allowed moderators to create merchandise for their subreddits. Redditmade closed in February 2015.[92] In November 2014, Chief Executive Yishan Wong resigned and co-founder Ohanian returned as the full-time executive chairman. Ellen Pao, Reddit's business and partnerships strategist became the interim chief executive.[93] On July 10, 2015, Pao resigned and was replaced by Steve Huffman as CEO.[94][95]
In October 2015, Reddit announced a news portal called Upvoted, designed to broaden the reach of Reddit as a standalone site featuring editorial content from Reddit users.[96] In April 2016, Reddit launched a new blocking tool in an attempt to curb online harassment. The tool allows a user to hide posts and comments from selected redditors in addition to blocking private messages from those redditors.[97] The option to block a redditor is done by clicking a button in the inbox. Technology
Reddit was originally written in Common Lisp but was rewritten in Python in December 2005.[4] The reasons given for the switch were wider access to code libraries and greater development flexibility. The Python web framework that former Reddit employee Swartz developed to run the site, web.py, is now available as an open-source project.[98] On June 18, 2008, Reddit became an open source project.[99] With the exception of the anti-spam/cheating portions, all of the code and libraries written for Reddit became freely available on GitHub.[100] As of November 10, 2009, Reddit uses Pylons as its web framework.[101]
As of November 10, 2009, Reddit has decommissioned their physical servers and migrated to Amazon Web Services.[102] Reddit uses PostgreSQL as their primary datastore and is slowly moving to Apache Cassandra, a column-oriented datastore. It uses RabbitMQ for offline processing, HAProxy for load balancing and memcached for caching. In early 2009, Reddit started using jQuery.[103] On June 7, 2010, Reddit staff launched a revamped mobile interface featuring rewritten CSS, a new color scheme, and a multitude of improvements.[104]
On July 21, 2010, Reddit outsourced the Reddit search engine to Flaptor, who used its search product IndexTank.[105] As of July 12, 2012, Reddit uses Amazon CloudSearch.[106] There are several unofficial applications that use the Reddit API in the Google Play store, and F-Droid repository. Examples include: Reddit is Fun,[107] Andreddit,[108] F5, BaconReader,[109] Reddit Sync[110] and an Android tablet specific application called Reddita.[111] There are also several Windows apps used to access Reddit, including unofficial Reddit apps such as ReddHub[112] and Reddit To Go!.[113] An unofficial desktop application Reditr[114] exists that is compatible with Windows, OS X, Linux and ChromeOS.
There are several Reddit applications for iOS. These include Karma, Upvote, iReddit, iPad-specific applications such as Reddzine and Biscuit, and, until April 2016, Alien Blue.[115] In September 2014, an official mobile application for browsing AMA (Ask Me Anything) threads was released for the iOS and Android platforms under the name Ask me Anything.[116] In October 2014, Alien Blue was acquired by Reddit and became the official iOS Reddit app.[117] In April 2016, Reddit released an official application called Reddit: The Official App, which is available on Google Play and the iOS App Store, and Alien Blue was removed from the App Store in favor of the new app.[118] Demographics
According to Reddit's Audience and Demographics page, as of December 2015, 53% of redditors are male and 54% are from the United States.[119] In 2013, Pewinternet stated that 6% of all American adult Internet users have used Reddit; that males were twice as likely to be redditors as females were; and that Reddit's largest age bracket was between the ages of 18 and 29.[120] As of the end of 2016, Reddit is the only major social media platform that does not have a female majority user base.[121] Community and culture
The website is known for its open nature and diverse user community that generate its content.[122] Its demographics allows for wide-ranging subject areas, or main subreddits, that receive much attention, as well as the ability for smaller subreddits to serve more niche purposes. For example, the University of Reddit, a subreddit that exists to communally teach, emerged from the ability to enter and leave the online forum, the "classroom", at will, and classes ranging from computer science to music, to fine art theory exist.[123] The unique possibilities that subreddits provide create new opportunities for raising attention and fostering discussion across many areas. In gaining popularity in terms of unique users per day, Reddit has been a platform for many to raise publicity for a number of causes. And with that increased ability to garner attention and a large audience, users can use one of the largest communities on the Internet for new, revolutionary, and influential purposes.[124]
Its popularity has enabled users to take unprecedented advantage of such a large community. Its innovative socially ranked rating and sorting system drives a method that is useful for fulfilling certain goals of viewership or simply finding answers to interesting questions. User sentiments about the website's function and structure include feelings about the breadth and depth of the discussions on Reddit and how the site makes it easy to discover new and interesting items. Almost all of the user reviews on Alexa.com, which rates Reddit's monthly unique traffic rating 125th in the United States, mention Reddit's "good content" as a likable quality. However, others raise the negative aspects of the potential for Reddit's communities to possess a "hive mind" of sorts,[125] embodying some negative aspects of group interaction theories like crowd psychology and collective consciousness. Philanthropic efforts
Reddit has been known as the instigator of several charity projects, some short and others long-term, in order to benefit others. A selection of major events are outlined below:
In early October 2010, a story was posted on Reddit about a seven-year-old girl, Kathleen Edward, who was in the advanced stages of Huntington's disease. The girl's neighbors were taunting her and her family. Redditors banded together and gave the girl a shopping spree[126][127] at Tree Town Toys, a toy store local to the story owned by a Reddit user. In early December 2010, members of the Christianity subreddit decided to hold a fundraiser[128] and later members of the atheism subreddit decided to give some friendly competition,[129] cross-promoting[130] fundraising drives for Doctors Without Borders and World Vision's Clean Water Fund, respectively. Later, the Islam subreddit joined in, raising money for Islamic Relief. In less than a week, the three communities (as well as the Reddit community at large) raised over $50,000.[131] Most of this was raised by the atheism subreddit, though the smaller Christianity subreddit had a higher average donation amount per subscriber.[132] A similar donation drive in 2011 saw the atheism subreddit raise over $200,000 for charity.[133] Reddit started the largest Secret Santa program in the world, which is still in operation to date. For the 2010 Holiday season, 92 countries were involved in the Secret Santa program. There were 17,543 participants, and $662,907.60 was collectively spent on gift purchases and shipping costs.[134][135][136] In 2014, about 200,000 users from 188 countries participated.[137] Several celebrities have participated in the program, including Bill Gates[138] and Snoop Dogg.[139] Eventually, the Secret Santa program expanded to various other occasions through Redditgifts. Members from Reddit donated over $600,000 to DonorsChoose in support of Stephen Colbert's March to Keep Fear Alive. The donation spree broke previous records for the most money donated to a single cause by the Reddit community and resulted in an interview with Colbert on Reddit.[140] Reddit users donated $185,356 to Direct Relief for Haiti after an earthquake devastated the nation in January 2010.[141] Reddit users donated over $70,000 to the Faraja Orphanage in the first 24 hours to help secure the orphanage after intruders robbed and attacked one of the volunteers, who survived a strike to the head from a machete.[142] In October 2012, "Shitty Watercolour", a popular Redditor known for posting watercolor paintings on the website,[143][144][145] streamed live a 12-hour painting session on YouTube to raise money for charity: water, a non-profit organization which aims to provide potable drinking water in developing countries. Redditors donated a minimum of $10 to have a photo of their choice painted in a 5 by 5 centimetres (2.0 by 2.0 in) square section of large sheets of paper.[146][147] The paint-a-thon raised $2,700.[148] In February 2014, Reddit announced it would be donating 10% of its annual ad revenue to non-profits voted upon by its users.[149] Reddit continued this policy for 2015, donating $82,765 each to Electronic Frontier Foundation, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Doctors Without Borders, Erowid Center, Wikimedia Foundation, Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, NPR, Free Software Foundation, Freedom From Religion Foundation, and Tor Project.[150] In response to the 2015 Nepal earthquake, redditors raised more than $145,000 for Direct Relief and more than $110,000 for MAP International.[151] 
Commercial activity
In February 2013, Betabeat published a post that recognized the influx of multi-national corporations like Costco, Taco Bell, Subaru, and McDonald's posting branded content on Reddit that was made to appear as if it was original content from legitimate Reddit users.[152] Reddit's former Director of Communications noted that while a large number of Chief Marketing Officers want to "infiltrate the reddit community on behalf of their brand," she emphasized that "self-promotion is frowned upon" and the site is "100 percent organic."[153][154][155][156] She recommended that advertisers design promotions that "spark conversations and feedback."[157] She recommended that businesses use AMAs to get attention for public figures but cautioned "It is important to approach AMAs carefully and be aware that this may not be a fit for every project or client."[158] Nissan ran a successful Branded content promotion offering users free gifts to publicize a new car,[159][160] though the company was later ridiculed for suspected astroturfing when the CEO only answered puff piece questions on the site.[161][162] Taylor described these situations as "high risk" noting "We try hard to educate people that they have to treat questions that may seem irreverent or out of left field the same as they would questions about the specific project they are promoting."[163]
Reddit's users are more privacy-conscious than on other websites, using tools like AdBlock and proxies,[164] and they hate "feeling manipulated by brands" but respond well to "content that begs for intelligent viewers and participants."[165] Lauren Orsini writes in ReadWrite that "Reddit's huge community is the perfect hype machine for promoting a new movie, a product release, or a lagging political campaign" but "very specific set of etiquette. Redditors don't want to advertise for you, they want to talk to you."[166] Journalists have used the site as a basis for stories, though they are advised by the site's policies to respect that "reddit's communities belong to their members" and to seek proper attribution for people's contributions.[167]
Reddit announced that they would begin using VigLink to redirect affiliate links in June 2016.[168] Reddit effect Main article: Slashdot effect
Also known as the "Slashdot effect", the Reddit effect occurs when a smaller website has a high influx of traffic after being linked to on Reddit.[169] It is also called the "Reddit Hug of Death" among the website's users. Because Reddit is such a large site, the traffic is immense and can easily crash smaller sites. In order for users to see crashed websites, several Reddit bots have been created that take a snapshot of the website before large amounts of traffic flood the affected website. "Restoring Truthiness" campaign
As a response to Glenn Beck's August 28, 2010, Restoring Honor rally (heavily promoted by him in his Fox News broadcasts during the summer), in September 2010 Reddit users started a movement to persuade satirist Stephen Colbert to have a counter-rally in Washington, D.C.[170] The movement, which came to be called "Restoring Truthiness", was started by user mrsammercer, in a post where he described waking up from a dream in which Stephen Colbert was holding a satirical rally in D.C.[171] He writes, "This would be the high water mark of American satire. Half a million people pretending to suspend all rational thought in unison. Perfect harmony. It'll feel like San Francisco in the late 60s, only we won't be able to get any acid."
The idea resonated with the Reddit community, which launched a campaign to bring the event to life. Over $600,000[172] was raised for charity to gain the attention of Colbert. The campaign was mentioned on-air several times, and when the Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear was held in Washington, D.C. on October 30, 2010, thousands of redditors made the journey.[173]
During a post-rally press conference, Reddit co-founder Ohanian asked, "What role did the Internet campaign play in convincing you to hold this rally?" Jon Stewart responded by saying that, though it was a very nice gesture, the two had already thought of the idea prior and the deposit on using the National Mall was already paid during the summer, so it acted mostly as a "validation of what we were thinking about attempting".[174] In a message to the Reddit community, Colbert later added, "I have no doubt that your efforts to organize and the joy you clearly brought to your part of the story contributed greatly to the turnout and success."[175] Controversies See also: Controversial Reddit communities and Michael Brutsch
The website generally lets moderators on individual subreddits make editorial decisions about what content to allow, and has a history of permitting some subreddits dedicated to controversial content.[176] Many of the default pages are highly moderated, with the "science" subreddit banning climate change denialism,[177] and the "news" subreddit banning opinion pieces and columns.[178] Reddit has changed its site-wide editorial policies several times, sometimes in reaction to controversies.[179][180][181][182] Reddit has had a history of giving a platform to objectionable but legal content, and in 2011, news media covered the way that jailbait was being shared on the site before the site changed their policies to explicitly ban "suggestive or sexual content featuring minors".[183] Following some controversial incidents of Internet vigilantism, Reddit introduced a strict rule against the publication of non-public personally-identifying information via the site (colloquially known as doxxing). Those who break the rule are subject to a site-wide ban, and their posts and even entire communities may be removed for breaking the rule. 2010
On December 16, 2010, a redditor named Matt posted a link describing how he has donated a kidney, and included a JustGive link to encourage users to give donations to the American Cancer Society.[184] After an initially positive reaction, Reddit users began to become suspicious of Matt's intentions, and suggested that he was keeping the donations for himself. Users telephoned his home and he received death threats. Matt eventually proved that he was genuine by uploading his doctor's records.[185] 2011
On October 18, 2011, an IT manager submitted a post to the subreddit "gameswap" offering Redditors to trade one of 312 codes he had been given for the game Deus Ex: Human Revolution.[186] A group of users obtained his personal details, and began to blackmail him for the codes.[187] The Monday after uploading the post, he received 138 threatening phone calls both at home and at his job, and by the end of the day he had been fired.[188] 2013
Following the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings, Reddit faced criticism after users wrongly identified a number of people as suspects.[189] Notable among misidentified bombing suspects was Sunil Tripathi, a student reported missing before the bombings took place. A body reported to be Sunil's was found in Providence River in Rhode Island on April 25, 2013, according to Rhode Island Health Department. The cause of death was not immediately known, but authorities said they did not suspect foul play.[190] The family later confirmed Tripathi's death was a result of suicide.[191] Reddit general manager Martin later issued an apology for this behavior, criticizing the "online witch hunts and dangerous speculation" that took place on the website.[192] The incident was later referenced in the season 5 episode of the CBS TV series The Good Wife titled "Whack-a-Mole,"[193] as well as The Newsroom.[194][195]
In late October 2013, the moderators of the "politics" subreddit banned a large group of websites. Many were left wing opinion websites, such as Mother Jones, The Huffington Post, Salon, Alternet, Rawstory, The Daily Kos, Truthout, Media Matters, and ThinkProgress as well as some popular progressive blog sites, such as Democratic Underground and Crooks and Liars. They also banned a number of right wing sites—Drudge Report, Breitbart, The Daily Caller, Dailypaul, Power Line, and Reason. Salon reported that "the section's moderators explained in a post on Tuesday, the goal is 'to reduce the number of blogspam submissions and sensationalist titles.' The purge, the moderators explained, is also aimed at sites that provide lots of "bad journalism."[196] The December 2013 list of banned websites has been modified since late October, and sites with original content, such as Mother Jones and The Huffington Post, are allowed.[197] Moderators also banned RT, which moderators stated was due to vote manipulation and spam, though one moderator stated that he wanted RT banned because it is Kremlin backed.[198][199] 2014
In August 2014, photos from the 2014 celebrity photo hack were widely disseminated across the site.[200][201] A dedicated subreddit, "TheFappening," was created for this purpose,[202] and contained links to most if not all of the criminally obtained explicit images.[203][204][205][206][207] Some images of Liz Lee and McKayla Maroney from the leak were identified by redditors and outside commentators as child pornography because the photos were taken when the women were underage.[208] The subreddit was banned on September 6.[209] The scandal led to wider criticisms concerning the website's administration from The Verge and The Daily Dot.[210][211]
Also in August 2014, moderators and administrators censored a sizeable amount of content related to the GamerGate controversy; one thread in the "gaming" subreddit had almost 24,000 comments removed.[212] Multiple subreddits were deleted by administrators for voicing opinions on Zoe Quinn, Anita Sarkeesian, Brianna Wu and similarly important GamerGate controversy figures.[213] The subreddit "ZoeQuinnDiscussion" was banned for violating the Reddit rules.[214] Administrators defended this response when questioned, blaming 4chan for raiding threads and causing harm. This was debated by some redditors.[215] An anonymous subreddit moderator claims he was removed for leaking correspondence between himself and Zoe Quinn.[216] On December 18, 2014, Reddit took the unusual step of banning a subreddit, "SonyGOP," that was being used to distribute hacked Sony files.[217] 2015
After Ellen Pao became CEO, she was initially a target of criticism by users who objected to her lawsuit.[218] Later on June 10, 2015, Reddit shut down the 150,000-subscriber "fatpeoplehate" subreddit and four others citing issues related to harassment.[219] This move was seen as very controversial; some commenters said that the bans went too far, while others said that the bans did not go far enough.[220] One of the latter complaints concerned a subreddit that was "expressing support" for the perpetrator of the Charleston church shooting.[221] Responding to the accusations of "skewed enforcement", Reddit reaffirmed their commitment to free expression and stated that "There are some subreddits with very little viewership that get highlighted repeatedly for their content, but those are a tiny fraction of the content on the site."
On July 2, 2015, Reddit began experiencing a series of blackouts as moderators set popular subreddit communities to private, in an event dubbed "AMAgeddon," a portmanteau of AMA ("ask me anything") and Armageddon. This was done in protest of the recent firing of Victoria Taylor, an administrator who helped organize citizen-led interviews with famous people on the popular "Ask me Anything" subreddit. Organizers of the blackout also expressed resentment about the recent severance of the communication between Reddit and the moderators of subreddits.[222] The blackout intensified on July 3 when former community manager David Croach gave an AMA about being fired. Before deleting his posts, he stated that Ellen Pao dismissed him with one year of health coverage when he had cancer and did not recover quickly enough.[223][224] Following this, a Change.org petition to remove Pao as CEO of Reddit Inc. reached over 200,000 signatures.[225][226][227] Pao posted a response on July 3 as well as an extended version of it on July 6 in which she apologized for bad communication and not delivering on promises. She also apologized on behalf of the other administrators and noted that problems already existed over the past several years.[228][229][230][231] On July 10, Pao resigned as CEO and was replaced by former CEO and co-founder Steve Huffman.[94][232]
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Ceza - Beatcoin [Official Music Video] // TURKISH RAP REACTION

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