Bitcoin.com Buy BTC & BCH News, prices, mining & wallet

Scaling Reddit Community Points with Arbitrum Rollup: a piece of cake

Scaling Reddit Community Points with Arbitrum Rollup: a piece of cake
https://preview.redd.it/b80c05tnb9e51.jpg?width=2550&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=850282c1a3962466ed44f73886dae1c8872d0f31
Submitted for consideration to The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off
Baked by the pastry chefs at Offchain Labs
Please send questions or comments to [[email protected] ](mailto:[email protected])
1. Overview
We're excited to submit Arbitrum Rollup for consideration to The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off. Arbitrum Rollup is the only Ethereum scaling solution that supports arbitrary smart contracts without compromising on Ethereum's security or adding points of centralization. For Reddit, this means that Arbitrum can not only scale the minting and transfer of Community Points, but it can foster a creative ecosystem built around Reddit Community Points enabling points to be used in a wide variety of third party applications. That's right -- you can have your cake and eat it too!
Arbitrum Rollup isn't just Ethereum-style. Its Layer 2 transactions are byte-for-byte identical to Ethereum, which means Ethereum users can continue to use their existing addresses and wallets, and Ethereum developers can continue to use their favorite toolchains and development environments out-of-the-box with Arbitrum. Coupling Arbitrum’s tooling-compatibility with its trustless asset interoperability, Reddit not only can scale but can onboard the entire Ethereum community at no cost by giving them the same experience they already know and love (well, certainly know).
To benchmark how Arbitrum can scale Reddit Community Points, we launched the Reddit contracts on an Arbitrum Rollup chain. Since Arbitrum provides full Solidity support, we didn't have to rewrite the Reddit contracts or try to mimic their functionality using an unfamiliar paradigm. Nope, none of that. We launched the Reddit contracts unmodified on Arbitrum Rollup complete with support for minting and distributing points. Like every Arbitrum Rollup chain, the chain included a bridge interface in which users can transfer Community Points or any other asset between the L1 and L2 chains. Arbitrum Rollup chains also support dynamic contract loading, which would allow third-party developers to launch custom ecosystem apps that integrate with Community Points on the very same chain that runs the Reddit contracts.
1.1 Why Ethereum
Perhaps the most exciting benefit of distributing Community Points using a blockchain is the ability to seamlessly port points to other applications and use them in a wide variety of contexts. Applications may include simple transfers such as a restaurant that allows Redditors to spend points on drinks. Or it may include complex smart contracts -- such as placing Community Points as a wager for a multiparty game or as collateral in a financial contract.
The common denominator between all of the fun uses of Reddit points is that it needs a thriving ecosystem of both users and developers, and the Ethereum blockchain is perhaps the only smart contract platform with significant adoption today. While many Layer 1 blockchains boast lower cost or higher throughput than the Ethereum blockchain, more often than not, these attributes mask the reality of little usage, weaker security, or both.
Perhaps another platform with significant usage will rise in the future. But today, Ethereum captures the mindshare of the blockchain community, and for Community Points to provide the most utility, the Ethereum blockchain is the natural choice.
1.2 Why Arbitrum
While Ethereum's ecosystem is unmatched, the reality is that fees are high and capacity is too low to support the scale of Reddit Community Points. Enter Arbitrum. Arbitrum Rollup provides all of the ecosystem benefits of Ethereum, but with orders of magnitude more capacity and at a fraction of the cost of native Ethereum smart contracts. And most of all, we don't change the experience from users. They continue to use the same wallets, addresses, languages, and tools.
Arbitrum Rollup is not the only solution that can scale payments, but it is the only developed solution that can scale both payments and arbitrary smart contracts trustlessly, which means that third party users can build highly scalable add-on apps that can be used without withdrawing money from the Rollup chain. If you believe that Reddit users will want to use their Community Points in smart contracts--and we believe they will--then it makes the most sense to choose a single scaling solution that can support the entire ecosystem, eliminating friction for users.
We view being able to run smart contracts in the same scaling solution as fundamentally critical since if there's significant demand in running smart contracts from Reddit's ecosystem, this would be a load on Ethereum and would itself require a scaling solution. Moreover, having different scaling solutions for the minting/distribution/spending of points and for third party apps would be burdensome for users as they'd have to constantly shuffle their Points back and forth.
2. Arbitrum at a glance
Arbitrum Rollup has a unique value proposition as it offers a combination of features that no other scaling solution achieves. Here we highlight its core attributes.
Decentralized. Arbitrum Rollup is as decentralized as Ethereum. Unlike some other Layer 2 scaling projects, Arbitrum Rollup doesn't have any centralized components or centralized operators who can censor users or delay transactions. Even in non-custodial systems, centralized components provide a risk as the operators are generally incentivized to increase their profit by extracting rent from users often in ways that severely degrade user experience. Even if centralized operators are altruistic, centralized components are subject to hacking, coercion, and potential liability.
Massive Scaling. Arbitrum achieves order of magnitude scaling over Ethereum's L1 smart contracts. Our software currently supports 453 transactions-per-second for basic transactions (at 1616 Ethereum gas per tx). We have a lot of room left to optimize (e.g. aggregating signatures), and over the next several months capacity will increase significantly. As described in detail below, Arbitrum can easily support and surpass Reddit's anticipated initial load, and its capacity will continue to improve as Reddit's capacity needs grow.
Low cost. The cost of running Arbitrum Rollup is quite low compared to L1 Ethereum and other scaling solutions such as those based on zero-knowledge proofs. Layer 2 fees are low, fixed, and predictable and should not be overly burdensome for Reddit to cover. Nobody needs to use special equipment or high-end machines. Arbitrum requires validators, which is a permissionless role that can be run on any reasonable on-line machine. Although anybody can act as a validator, in order to protect against a “tragedy of the commons” and make sure reputable validators are participating, we support a notion of “invited validators” that are compensated for their costs. In general, users pay (low) fees to cover the invited validators’ costs, but we imagine that Reddit may cover this cost for its users. See more on the costs and validator options below.
Ethereum Developer Experience. Not only does Arbitrum support EVM smart contracts, but the developer experience is identical to that of L1 Ethereum contracts and fully compatible with Ethereum tooling. Developers can port existing Solidity apps or write new ones using their favorite and familiar toolchains (e.g. Truffle, Buidler). There are no new languages or coding paradigms to learn.
Ethereum wallet compatibility. Just as in Ethereum, Arbitrum users need only hold keys, but do not have to store any coin history or additional data to protect or access their funds. Since Arbitrum transactions are semantically identical to Ethereum L1 transactions, existing Ethereum users can use their existing Ethereum keys with their existing wallet software such as Metamask.
Token interoperability. Users can easily transfer their ETH, ERC-20 and ERC-721 tokens between Ethereum and the Arbitrum Rollup chain. As we explain in detail below, it is possible to mint tokens in L2 that can subsequently be withdrawn and recognized by the L1 token contract.
Fast finality. Transactions complete with the same finality time as Ethereum L1 (and it's possible to get faster finality guarantees by trading away trust assumptions; see the Arbitrum Rollup whitepaper for details).
Non-custodial. Arbitrum Rollup is a non-custodial scaling solution, so users control their funds/points and neither Reddit nor anyone else can ever access or revoke points held by users.
Censorship Resistant. Since it's completely decentralized, and the Arbitrum protocol guarantees progress trustlessly, Arbitrum Rollup is just as censorship-proof as Ethereum.
Block explorer. The Arbitrum Rollup block explorer allows users to view and analyze transactions on the Rollup chain.
Limitations
Although this is a bake-off, we're not going to sugar coat anything. Arbitrum Rollup, like any Optimistic Rollup protocol, does have one limitation, and that's the delay on withdrawals.
As for the concrete length of the delay, we've done a good deal of internal modeling and have blogged about this as well. Our current modeling suggests a 3-hour delay is sufficient (but as discussed in the linked post there is a tradeoff space between the length of the challenge period and the size of the validators’ deposit).
Note that this doesn't mean that the chain is delayed for three hours. Arbitrum Rollup supports pipelining of execution, which means that validators can keep building new states even while previous ones are “in the pipeline” for confirmation. As the challenge delays expire for each update, a new state will be confirmed (read more about this here).
So activity and progress on the chain are not delayed by the challenge period. The only thing that's delayed is the consummation of withdrawals. Recall though that any single honest validator knows immediately (at the speed of L1 finality) which state updates are correct and can guarantee that they will eventually be confirmed, so once a valid withdrawal has been requested on-chain, every honest party knows that the withdrawal will definitely happen. There's a natural place here for a liquidity market in which a validator (or someone who trusts a validator) can provide withdrawal loans for a small interest fee. This is a no-risk business for them as they know which withdrawals will be confirmed (and can force their confirmation trustlessly no matter what anyone else does) but are just waiting for on-chain finality.
3. The recipe: How Arbitrum Rollup works
For a description of the technical components of Arbitrum Rollup and how they interact to create a highly scalable protocol with a developer experience that is identical to Ethereum, please refer to the following documents:
Arbitrum Rollup Whitepaper
Arbitrum academic paper (describes a previous version of Arbitrum)
4. Developer docs and APIs
For full details about how to set up and interact with an Arbitrum Rollup chain or validator, please refer to our developer docs, which can be found at https://developer.offchainlabs.com/.
Note that the Arbitrum version described on that site is older and will soon be replaced by the version we are entering in Reddit Bake-Off, which is still undergoing internal testing before public release.
5. Who are the validators?
As with any Layer 2 protocol, advancing the protocol correctly requires at least one validator (sometimes called block producers) that is honest and available. A natural question is: who are the validators?
Recall that the validator set for an Arbitrum chain is open and permissionless; anyone can start or stop validating at will. (A useful analogy is to full nodes on an L1 chain.) But we understand that even though anyone can participate, Reddit may want to guarantee that highly reputable nodes are validating their chain. Reddit may choose to validate the chain themselves and/or hire third-party validators.To this end, we have begun building a marketplace for validator-for-hire services so that dapp developers can outsource validation services to reputable nodes with high up-time. We've announced a partnership in which Chainlink nodes will provide Arbitrum validation services, and we expect to announce more partnerships shortly with other blockchain infrastructure providers.
Although there is no requirement that validators are paid, Arbitrum’s economic model tracks validators’ costs (e.g. amount of computation and storage) and can charge small fees on user transactions, using a gas-type system, to cover those costs. Alternatively, a single party such as Reddit can agree to cover the costs of invited validators.
6. Reddit Contract Support
Since Arbitrum contracts and transactions are byte-for-byte compatible with Ethereum, supporting the Reddit contracts is as simple as launching them on an Arbitrum chain.
Minting. Arbitrum Rollup supports hybrid L1/L2 tokens which can be minted in L2 and then withdrawn onto the L1. An L1 contract at address A can make a special call to the EthBridge which deploys a "buddy contract" to the same address A on an Arbitrum chain. Since it's deployed at the same address, users can know that the L2 contract is the authorized "buddy" of the L1 contract on the Arbitrum chain.
For minting, the L1 contract is a standard ERC-20 contract which mints and burns tokens when requested by the L2 contract. It is paired with an ERC-20 contract in L2 which mints tokens based on whatever programmer provided minting facility is desired and burns tokens when they are withdrawn from the rollup chain. Given this base infrastructure, Arbitrum can support any smart contract based method for minting tokens in L2, and indeed we directly support Reddit's signature/claim based minting in L2.
Batch minting. What's better than a mint cookie? A whole batch! In addition to supporting Reddit’s current minting/claiming scheme, we built a second minting design, which we believe outperforms the signature/claim system in many scenarios.
In the current system, Reddit periodically issues signed statements to users, who then take those statements to the blockchain to claim their tokens. An alternative approach would have Reddit directly submit the list of users/amounts to the blockchain and distribute the tokens to the users without the signature/claim process.
To optimize the cost efficiency of this approach, we designed an application-specific compression scheme to minimize the size of the batch distribution list. We analyzed the data from Reddit's previous distributions and found that the data is highly compressible since token amounts are small and repeated, and addresses appear multiple times. Our function groups transactions by size, and replaces previously-seen addresses with a shorter index value. We wrote client code to compress the data, wrote a Solidity decompressing function, and integrated that function into Reddit’s contract running on Arbitrum.
When we ran the compression function on the previous Reddit distribution data, we found that we could compress batched minting data down to to 11.8 bytes per minting event (averaged over a 6-month trace of Reddit’s historical token grants)compared with roughly 174 bytes of on-chain data needed for the signature claim approach to minting (roughly 43 for an RLP-encoded null transaction + 65 for Reddit's signature + 65 for the user's signature + roughly 8 for the number of Points) .
The relative benefit of the two approaches with respect to on-chain call data cost depends on the percentage of users that will actually claim their tokens on chain. With the above figures, batch minting will be cheaper if roughly 5% of users redeem their claims. We stress that our compression scheme is not Arbitrum-specific and would be beneficial in any general-purpose smart contract platform.
8. Benchmarks and costs
In this section, we give the full costs of operating the Reddit contracts on an Arbitrum Rollup chain including the L1 gas costs for the Rollup chain, the costs of computation and storage for the L2 validators as well as the capital lockup requirements for staking.
Arbitrum Rollup is still on testnet, so we did not run mainnet benchmarks. Instead, we measured the L1 gas cost and L2 workload for Reddit operations on Arbitrum and calculated the total cost assuming current Ethereum gas prices. As noted below in detail, our measurements do not assume that Arbitrum is consuming the entire capacity of Ethereum. We will present the details of our model now, but for full transparency you can also play around with it yourself and adjust the parameters, by copying the spreadsheet found here.
Our cost model is based on measurements of Reddit’s contracts, running unmodified (except for the addition of a batch minting function) on Arbitrum Rollup on top of Ethereum.
On the distribution of transactions and frequency of assertions. Reddit's instructions specify the following minimum parameters that submissions should support:
Over a 5 day period, your scaling PoC should be able to handle:
  • 100,000 point claims (minting & distributing points)
  • 25,000 subscriptions
  • 75,000 one-off points burning
  • 100,000 transfers
We provide the full costs of operating an Arbitrum Rollup chain with this usage under the assumption that tokens are minted or granted to users in batches, but other transactions are uniformly distributed over the 5 day period. Unlike some other submissions, we do not make unrealistic assumptions that all operations can be submitted in enormous batches. We assume that batch minting is done in batches that use only a few percent on an L1 block’s gas, and that other operations come in evenly over time and are submitted in batches, with one batch every five minutes to keep latency reasonable. (Users are probably already waiting for L1 finality, which takes at least that long to achieve.)
We note that assuming that there are only 300,000 transactions that arrive uniformly over the 5 day period will make our benchmark numbers lower, but we believe that this will reflect the true cost of running the system. To see why, say that batches are submitted every five minutes (20 L1 blocks) and there's a fixed overhead of c bytes of calldata per batch, the cost of which will get amortized over all transactions executed in that batch. Assume that each individual transaction adds a marginal cost of t. Lastly assume the capacity of the scaling system is high enough that it can support all of Reddit's 300,000 transactions within a single 20-block batch (i.e. that there is more than c + 300,000*t byes of calldata available in 20 blocks).
Consider what happens if c, the per-batch overhead, is large (which it is in some systems, but not in Arbitrum). In the scenario that transactions actually arrive at the system's capacity and each batch is full, then c gets amortized over 300,000 transactions. But if we assume that the system is not running at capacity--and only receives 300,000 transactions arriving uniformly over 5 days-- then each 20-block assertion will contain about 200 transactions, and thus each transaction will pay a nontrivial cost due to c.
We are aware that other proposals presented scaling numbers assuming that 300,000 transactions arrived at maximum capacity and was executed in a single mega-transaction, but according to our estimates, for at least one such report, this led to a reported gas price that was 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than it would have been assuming uniform arrival. We make more realistic batching assumptions, and we believe Arbitrum compares well when batch sizes are realistic.
Our model. Our cost model includes several sources of cost:
  • L1 gas costs: This is the cost of posting transactions as calldata on the L1 chain, as well as the overhead associated with each batch of transactions, and the L1 cost of settling transactions in the Arbitrum protocol.
  • Validator’s staking costs: In normal operation, one validator will need to be staked. The stake is assumed to be 0.2% of the total value of the chain (which is assumed to be $1 per user who is eligible to claim points). The cost of staking is the interest that could be earned on the money if it were not staked.
  • Validator computation and storage: Every validator must do computation to track the chain’s processing of transactions, and must maintain storage to keep track of the contracts’ EVM storage. The cost of computation and storage are estimated based on measurements, with the dollar cost of resources based on Amazon Web Services pricing.
It’s clear from our modeling that the predominant cost is for L1 calldata. This will probably be true for any plausible rollup-based system.
Our model also shows that Arbitrum can scale to workloads much larger than Reddit’s nominal workload, without exhausting L1 or L2 resources. The scaling bottleneck will ultimately be calldata on the L1 chain. We believe that cost could be reduced substantially if necessary by clever encoding of data. (In our design any compression / decompression of L2 transaction calldata would be done by client software and L2 programs, never by an L1 contract.)
9. Status of Arbitrum Rollup
Arbitrum Rollup is live on Ethereum testnet. All of the code written to date including everything included in the Reddit demo is open source and permissively licensed under the Apache V2 license. The first testnet version of Arbitrum Rollup was released on testnet in February. Our current internal version, which we used to benchmark the Reddit contracts, will be released soon and will be a major upgrade.
Both the Arbitrum design as well as the implementation are heavily audited by independent third parties. The Arbitrum academic paper was published at USENIX Security, a top-tier peer-reviewed academic venue. For the Arbitrum software, we have engaged Trail of Bits for a security audit, which is currently ongoing, and we are committed to have a clean report before launching on Ethereum mainnet.
10. Reddit Universe Arbitrum Rollup Chain
The benchmarks described in this document were all measured using the latest internal build of our software. When we release the new software upgrade publicly we will launch a Reddit Universe Arbitrum Rollup chain as a public demo, which will contain the Reddit contracts as well as a Uniswap instance and a Connext Hub, demonstrating how Community Points can be integrated into third party apps. We will also allow members of the public to dynamically launch ecosystem contracts. We at Offchain Labs will cover the validating costs for the Reddit Universe public demo.
If the folks at Reddit would like to evaluate our software prior to our public demo, please email us at [email protected] and we'd be more than happy to provide early access.
11. Even more scaling: Arbitrum Sidechains
Rollups are an excellent approach to scaling, and we are excited about Arbitrum Rollup which far surpasses Reddit's scaling needs. But looking forward to Reddit's eventual goal of supporting hundreds of millions of users, there will likely come a time when Reddit needs more scaling than any Rollup protocol can provide.
While Rollups greatly reduce costs, they don't break the linear barrier. That is, all transactions have an on-chain footprint (because all calldata must be posted on-chain), albeit a far smaller one than on native Ethereum, and the L1 limitations end up being the bottleneck for capacity and cost. Since Ethereum has limited capacity, this linear use of on-chain resources means that costs will eventually increase superlinearly with traffic.
The good news is that we at Offchain Labs have a solution in our roadmap that can satisfy this extreme-scaling setting as well: Arbitrum AnyTrust Sidechains. Arbitrum Sidechains are similar to Arbitrum Rollup, but deviate in that they name a permissioned set of validators. When a chain’s validators agree off-chain, they can greatly reduce the on-chain footprint of the protocol and require almost no data to be put on-chain. When validators can't reach unanimous agreement off-chain, the protocol reverts to Arbitrum Rollup. Technically, Arbitrum Sidechains can be viewed as a hybrid between state channels and Rollup, switching back and forth as necessary, and combining the performance and cost that state channels can achieve in the optimistic case, with the robustness of Rollup in other cases. The core technical challenge is how to switch seamlessly between modes and how to guarantee that security is maintained throughout.
Arbitrum Sidechains break through this linear barrier, while still maintaining a high level of security and decentralization. Arbitrum Sidechains provide the AnyTrust guarantee, which says that as long as any one validator is honest and available (even if you don't know which one will be), the L2 chain is guaranteed to execute correctly according to its code and guaranteed to make progress. Unlike in a state channel, offchain progress does not require unanimous consent, and liveness is preserved as long as there is a single honest validator.
Note that the trust model for Arbitrum Sidechains is much stronger than for typical BFT-style chains which introduce a consensus "voting" protocols among a small permissioned group of validators. BFT-based protocols require a supermajority (more than 2/3) of validators to agree. In Arbitrum Sidechains, by contrast, all you need is a single honest validator to achieve guaranteed correctness and progress. Notice that in Arbitrum adding validators strictly increases security since the AnyTrust guarantee provides correctness as long as any one validator is honest and available. By contrast, in BFT-style protocols, adding nodes can be dangerous as a coalition of dishonest nodes can break the protocol.
Like Arbitrum Rollup, the developer and user experiences for Arbitrum Sidechains will be identical to that of Ethereum. Reddit would be able to choose a large and diverse set of validators, and all that they would need to guarantee to break through the scaling barrier is that a single one of them will remain honest.
We hope to have Arbitrum Sidechains in production in early 2021, and thus when Reddit reaches the scale that surpasses the capacity of Rollups, Arbitrum Sidechains will be waiting and ready to help.
While the idea to switch between channels and Rollup to get the best of both worlds is conceptually simple, getting the details right and making sure that the switch does not introduce any attack vectors is highly non-trivial and has been the subject of years of our research (indeed, we were working on this design for years before the term Rollup was even coined).
12. How Arbitrum compares
We include a comparison to several other categories as well as specific projects when appropriate. and explain why we believe that Arbitrum is best suited for Reddit's purposes. We focus our attention on other Ethereum projects.
Payment only Rollups. Compared to Arbitrum Rollup, ZK-Rollups and other Rollups that only support token transfers have several disadvantages:
  • As outlined throughout the proposal, we believe that the entire draw of Ethereum is in its rich smart contracts support which is simply not achievable with today's zero-knowledge proof technology. Indeed, scaling with a ZK-Rollup will add friction to the deployment of smart contracts that interact with Community Points as users will have to withdraw their coins from the ZK-Rollup and transfer them to a smart contract system (like Arbitrum). The community will be best served if Reddit builds on a platform that has built-in, frictionless smart-contract support.
  • All other Rollup protocols of which we are aware employ a centralized operator. While it's true that users retain custody of their coins, the centralized operator can often profit from censoring, reordering, or delaying transactions. A common misconception is that since they're non-custodial protocols, a centralized sequencer does not pose a risk but this is incorrect as the sequencer can wreak havoc or shake down users for side payments without directly stealing funds.
  • Sidechain type protocols can eliminate some of these issues, but they are not trustless. Instead, they require trust in some quorum of a committee, often requiring two-third of the committee to be honest, compared to rollup protocols like Arbitrum that require only a single honest party. In addition, not all sidechain type protocols have committees that are diverse, or even non-centralized, in practice.
  • Plasma-style protocols have a centralized operator and do not support general smart contracts.
13. Concluding Remarks
While it's ultimately up to the judges’ palate, we believe that Arbitrum Rollup is the bakeoff choice that Reddit kneads. We far surpass Reddit's specified workload requirement at present, have much room to optimize Arbitrum Rollup in the near term, and have a clear path to get Reddit to hundreds of millions of users. Furthermore, we are the only project that gives developers and users the identical interface as the Ethereum blockchain and is fully interoperable and tooling-compatible, and we do this all without any new trust assumptions or centralized components.
But no matter how the cookie crumbles, we're glad to have participated in this bake-off and we thank you for your consideration.
About Offchain Labs
Offchain Labs, Inc. is a venture-funded New York company that spun out of Princeton University research, and is building the Arbitrum platform to usher in the next generation of scalable, interoperable, and compatible smart contracts. Offchain Labs is backed by Pantera Capital, Compound VC, Coinbase Ventures, and others.
Leadership Team
Ed Felten
Ed Felten is Co-founder and Chief Scientist at Offchain Labs. He is on leave from Princeton University, where he is the Robert E. Kahn Professor of Computer Science and Public Affairs. From 2015 to 2017 he served at the White House as Deputy United States Chief Technology Officer and senior advisor to the President. He is an ACM Fellow and member of the National Academy of Engineering. Outside of work, he is an avid runner, cook, and L.A. Dodgers fan.
Steven Goldfeder
Steven Goldfeder is Co-founder and Chief Executive Officer at Offchain Labs. He holds a PhD from Princeton University, where he worked at the intersection of cryptography and cryptocurrencies including threshold cryptography, zero-knowledge proof systems, and post-quantum signatures. He is a co-author of Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies, the leading textbook on cryptocurrencies, and he has previously worked at Google and Microsoft Research, where he co-invented the Picnic signature algorithm. When not working, you can find Steven spending time with his family, taking a nature walk, or twisting balloons.
Harry Kalodner
Harry Kalodner is Co-founder and Chief Technology Officer at Offchain Labs where he leads the engineering team. Before the company he attended Princeton as a Ph.D candidate where his research explored economics, anonymity, and incentive compatibility of cryptocurrencies, and he also has worked at Apple. When not up at 3:00am writing code, Harry occasionally sleeps.
submitted by hkalodner to ethereum [link] [comments]

Syscoin Platform’s Great Reddit Scaling Bake-off Proposal

Syscoin Platform’s Great Reddit Scaling Bake-off Proposal

https://preview.redd.it/rqt2dldyg8e51.jpg?width=1044&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=777ae9d4fbbb54c3540682b72700fc4ba3de0a44
We are excited to participate and present Syscoin Platform's ideal characteristics and capabilities towards a well-rounded Reddit Community Points solution!
Our scaling solution for Reddit Community Points involves 2-way peg interoperability with Ethereum. This will provide a scalable token layer built specifically for speed and high volumes of simple value transfers at a very low cost, while providing sovereign ownership and onchain finality.
Token transfers scale by taking advantage of a globally sorting mempool that provides for probabilistically secure assumptions of “as good as settled”. The opportunity here for token receivers is to have an app-layer interactivity on the speed/security tradeoff (99.9999% assurance within 10 seconds). We call this Z-DAG, and it achieves high-throughput across a mesh network topology presently composed of about 2,000 geographically dispersed full-nodes. Similar to Bitcoin, however, these nodes are incentivized to run full-nodes for the benefit of network security, through a bonded validator scheme. These nodes do not participate in the consensus of transactions or block validation any differently than other nodes and therefore do not degrade the security model of Bitcoin’s validate first then trust, across every node. Each token transfer settles on-chain. The protocol follows Bitcoin core policies so it has adequate code coverage and protocol hardening to be qualified as production quality software. It shares a significant portion of Bitcoin’s own hashpower through merged-mining.
This platform as a whole can serve token microtransactions, larger settlements, and store-of-value in an ideal fashion, providing probabilistic scalability whilst remaining decentralized according to Bitcoin design. It is accessible to ERC-20 via a permissionless and trust-minimized bridge that works in both directions. The bridge and token platform are currently available on the Syscoin mainnet. This has been gaining recent attention for use by loyalty point programs and stablecoins such as Binance USD.

Solutions

Syscoin Foundation identified a few paths for Reddit to leverage this infrastructure, each with trade-offs. The first provides the most cost-savings and scaling benefits at some sacrifice of token autonomy. The second offers more preservation of autonomy with a more narrow scope of cost savings than the first option, but savings even so. The third introduces more complexity than the previous two yet provides the most overall benefits. We consider the third as most viable as it enables Reddit to benefit even while retaining existing smart contract functionality. We will focus on the third option, and include the first two for good measure.
  1. Distribution, burns and user-to-user transfers of Reddit Points are entirely carried out on the Syscoin network. This full-on approach to utilizing the Syscoin network provides the most scalability and transaction cost benefits of these scenarios. The tradeoff here is distribution and subscription handling likely migrating away from smart contracts into the application layer.
  2. The Reddit Community Points ecosystem can continue to use existing smart contracts as they are used today on the Ethereum mainchain. Users migrate a portion of their tokens to Syscoin, the scaling network, to gain much lower fees, scalability, and a proven base layer, without sacrificing sovereign ownership. They would use Syscoin for user-to-user transfers. Tips redeemable in ten seconds or less, a high-throughput relay network, and onchain settlement at a block target of 60 seconds.
  3. Integration between Matic Network and Syscoin Platform - similar to Syscoin’s current integration with Ethereum - will provide Reddit Community Points with EVM scalability (including the Memberships ERC777 operator) on the Matic side, and performant simple value transfers, robust decentralized security, and sovereign store-of-value on the Syscoin side. It’s “the best of both worlds”. The trade-off is more complex interoperability.

Syscoin + Matic Integration

Matic and Blockchain Foundry Inc, the public company formed by the founders of Syscoin, recently entered a partnership for joint research and business development initiatives. This is ideal for all parties as Matic Network and Syscoin Platform provide complementary utility. Syscoin offers characteristics for sovereign ownership and security based on Bitcoin’s time-tested model, and shares a significant portion of Bitcoin’s own hashpower. Syscoin’s focus is on secure and scalable simple value transfers, trust-minimized interoperability, and opt-in regulatory compliance for tokenized assets rather than scalability for smart contract execution. On the other hand, Matic Network can provide scalable EVM for smart contract execution. Reddit Community Points can benefit from both.
Syscoin + Matic integration is actively being explored by both teams, as it is helpful to Reddit, Ethereum, and the industry as a whole.

Proving Performance & Cost Savings

Our POC focuses on 100,000 on-chain settlements of token transfers on the Syscoin Core blockchain. Transfers and burns perform equally with Syscoin. For POCs related to smart contracts (subscriptions, etc), refer to the Matic Network proposal.
On-chain settlement of 100k transactions was accomplished within roughly twelve minutes, well-exceeding Reddit’s expectation of five days. This was performed using six full-nodes operating on compute-optimized AWS c4.2xlarge instances which were geographically distributed (Virginia, London, Sao Paulo Brazil, Oregon, Singapore, Germany). A higher quantity of settlements could be reached within the same time-frame with more broadcasting nodes involved, or using hosts with more resources for faster execution of the process.
Addresses used: 100,014
The demonstration was executed using this tool. The results can be seen in the following blocks:
612722: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/6d47796d043bb4c508d29123e6ae81b051f5e0aaef849f253c8f3a6942a022ce
612723: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/8e2077f743461b90f80b4bef502f564933a8e04de97972901f3d65cfadcf1faf
612724: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/205436d25b1b499fce44c29567c5c807beaca915b83cc9f3c35b0d76dbb11f6e
612725: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/776d1b1a0f90f655a6bbdf559ff5072459cbdc5682d7615ff4b78c00babdc237
612726: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/de4df0994253742a1ac8ac9eec8d2a8c8b0a6d72c53d6f3caa29bb6c171b0a6b
612727: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/e5e167c52a9decb313fbaadf49a5e34cb490f8084f642a850385476d4ef10d70
612728: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/ab64d989edc71890e7b5b8491c20e9a27520dc45a5f7c776d3dae79057f59fe7
612729: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/5e8b7ecd0e36f99d07e4ea6e135fc952bf7ec30164ab6f4d1e98b0f2d405df6d
612730: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/d395df3d31dde60bbb0bece6bd5b358297da878f0beb96be389e5f0e043580a3
It is important to note that this POC is not focused on Z-DAG. The performance of Z-DAG has been benchmarked within realistic network conditions: Whiteblock’s audit is publicly available. Network latency tests showed an average TPS around 15k with burst capacity up to 61k. Zero-latency control group exhibited ~150k TPS. Mainnet testing of the Z-DAG network is achievable and will require further coordination and additional resources.
Even further optimizations are expected in the upcoming Syscoin Core release which will implement a UTXO model for our token layer bringing further efficiency as well as open the door to additional scaling technology currently under research by our team and academic partners. At present our token layer is account-based, similar to Ethereum. Opt-in compliance structures will also be introduced soon which will offer some positive performance characteristics as well. It makes the most sense to implement these optimizations before performing another benchmark for Z-DAG, especially on the mainnet considering the resources required to stress-test this network.

Cost Savings

Total cost for these 100k transactions: $0.63 USD
See the live fee comparison for savings estimation between transactions on Ethereum and Syscoin. Below is a snapshot at time of writing:
ETH price: $318.55 ETH gas price: 55.00 Gwei ($0.37)
Syscoin price: $0.11
Snapshot of live fee comparison chart
Z-DAG provides a more efficient fee-market. A typical Z-DAG transaction costs 0.0000582 SYS. Tokens can be safely redeemed/re-spent within seconds or allowed to settle on-chain beforehand. The costs should remain about this low for microtransactions.
Syscoin will achieve further reduction of fees and even greater scalability with offchain payment channels for assets, with Z-DAG as a resilience fallback. New payment channel technology is one of the topics under research by the Syscoin development team with our academic partners at TU Delft. In line with the calculation in the Lightning Networks white paper, payment channels using assets with Syscoin Core will bring theoretical capacity for each person on Earth (7.8 billion) to have five on-chain transactions per year, per person, without requiring anyone to enter a fee market (aka “wait for a block”). This exceeds the minimum LN expectation of two transactions per person, per year; one to exist on-chain and one to settle aggregated value.

Tools, Infrastructure & Documentation

Syscoin Bridge

Mainnet Demonstration of Syscoin Bridge with the Basic Attention Token ERC-20
A two-way blockchain interoperability system that uses Simple Payment Verification to enable:
  • Any Standard ERC-20 token to be moved from Ethereum to the Syscoin blockchain as a Syscoin Platform Token (SPT), and back to Ethereum
  • Any SPT to be moved from Syscoin to the Ethereum blockchain as an ERC-20 token, and back to Syscoin

Benefits

  • Permissionless
  • No counterparties involved
  • No trading mechanisms involved
  • No third-party liquidity providers required
  • Cross-chain Fractional Supply - 2-way peg - Token supply maintained globally
  • ERC-20s gain vastly improved transactionality with the Syscoin Token Platform, along with the security of bitcoin-core-compliant PoW.
  • SPTs gain access to all the tooling, applications and capabilities of Ethereum for ERC-20, including smart contracts.
https://preview.redd.it/l8t2m8ldh8e51.png?width=1180&format=png&auto=webp&s=b0a955a0181746dc79aff718bd0bf607d3c3aa23
https://preview.redd.it/26htnxzfh8e51.png?width=1180&format=png&auto=webp&s=d0383d3c2ee836c9f60b57eca35542e9545f741d

Source code

https://github.com/syscoin/?q=sysethereum
Main Subprojects

API

Tools to simplify using Syscoin Bridge as a service with dapps and wallets will be released some time after implementation of Syscoin Core 4.2. These will be based upon the same processes which are automated in the current live Sysethereum Dapp that is functioning with the Syscoin mainnet.

Documentation

Syscoin Bridge & How it Works (description and process flow)
Superblock Validation Battles
HOWTO: Provision the Bridge for your ERC-20
HOWTO: Setup an Agent
Developer & User Diligence

Trade-off

The Syscoin Ethereum Bridge is secured by Agent nodes participating in a decentralized and incentivized model that involves roles of Superblock challengers and submitters. This model is open to participation. The benefits here are trust-minimization, permissionless-ness, and potentially less legal/regulatory red-tape than interop mechanisms that involve liquidity providers and/or trading mechanisms.
The trade-off is that due to the decentralized nature there are cross-chain settlement times of one hour to cross from Ethereum to Syscoin, and three hours to cross from Syscoin to Ethereum. We are exploring ways to reduce this time while maintaining decentralization via zkp. Even so, an “instant bridge” experience could be provided by means of a third-party liquidity mechanism. That option exists but is not required for bridge functionality today. Typically bridges are used with batch value, not with high frequencies of smaller values, and generally it is advantageous to keep some value on both chains for maximum availability of utility. Even so, the cross-chain settlement time is good to mention here.

Cost

Ethereum -> Syscoin: Matic or Ethereum transaction fee for bridge contract interaction, negligible Syscoin transaction fee for minting tokens
Syscoin -> Ethereum: Negligible Syscoin transaction fee for burning tokens, 0.01% transaction fee paid to Bridge Agent in the form of the ERC-20, Matic or Ethereum transaction fee for contract interaction.

Z-DAG

Zero-Confirmation Directed Acyclic Graph is an instant settlement protocol that is used as a complementary system to proof-of-work (PoW) in the confirmation of Syscoin service transactions. In essence, a Z-DAG is simply a directed acyclic graph (DAG) where validating nodes verify the sequential ordering of transactions that are received in their memory pools. Z-DAG is used by the validating nodes across the network to ensure that there is absolute consensus on the ordering of transactions and no balances are overflowed (no double-spends).

Benefits

  • Unique fee-market that is more efficient for microtransaction redemption and settlement
  • Uses decentralized means to enable tokens with value transfer scalability that is comparable or exceeds that of credit card networks
  • Provides high throughput and secure fulfillment even if blocks are full
  • Probabilistic and interactive
  • 99.9999% security assurance within 10 seconds
  • Can serve payment channels as a resilience fallback that is faster and lower-cost than falling-back directly to a blockchain
  • Each Z-DAG transaction also settles onchain through Syscoin Core at 60-second block target using SHA-256 Proof of Work consensus
https://preview.redd.it/pgbx84jih8e51.png?width=1614&format=png&auto=webp&s=5f631d42a33dc698365eb8dd184b6d442def6640

Source code

https://github.com/syscoin/syscoin

API

Syscoin-js provides tooling for all Syscoin Core RPCs including interactivity with Z-DAG.

Documentation

Z-DAG White Paper
Useful read: An in-depth Z-DAG discussion between Syscoin Core developer Jag Sidhu and Brave Software Research Engineer Gonçalo Pestana

Trade-off

Z-DAG enables the ideal speed/security tradeoff to be determined per use-case in the application layer. It minimizes the sacrifice required to accept and redeem fast transfers/payments while providing more-than-ample security for microtransactions. This is supported on the premise that a Reddit user receiving points does need security yet generally doesn’t want nor need to wait for the same level of security as a nation-state settling an international trade debt. In any case, each Z-DAG transaction settles onchain at a block target of 60 seconds.

Syscoin Specs

Syscoin 3.0 White Paper
(4.0 white paper is pending. For improved scalability and less blockchain bloat, some features of v3 no longer exist in current v4: Specifically Marketplace Offers, Aliases, Escrow, Certificates, Pruning, Encrypted Messaging)
  • 16MB block bandwidth per minute assuming segwit witness carrying transactions, and transactions ~200 bytes on average
  • SHA256 merge mined with Bitcoin
  • UTXO asset layer, with base Syscoin layer sharing identical security policies as Bitcoin Core
  • Z-DAG on asset layer, bridge to Ethereum on asset layer
  • On-chain scaling with prospect of enabling enterprise grade reliable trustless payment processing with on/offchain hybrid solution
  • Focus only on Simple Value Transfers. MVP of blockchain consensus footprint is balances and ownership of them. Everything else can reduce data availability in exchange for scale (Ethereum 2.0 model). We leave that to other designs, we focus on transfers.
  • Future integrations of MAST/Taproot to get more complex value transfers without trading off trustlessness or decentralization.
  • Zero-knowledge Proofs are a cryptographic new frontier. We are dabbling here to generalize the concept of bridging and also verify the state of a chain efficiently. We also apply it in our Digital Identity projects at Blockchain Foundry (a publicly traded company which develops Syscoin softwares for clients). We are also looking to integrate privacy preserving payment channels for off-chain payments through zkSNARK hub & spoke design which does not suffer from the HTLC attack vectors evident on LN. Much of the issues plaguing Lightning Network can be resolved using a zkSNARK design whilst also providing the ability to do a multi-asset payment channel system. Currently we found a showstopper attack (American Call Option) on LN if we were to use multiple-assets. This would not exist in a system such as this.

Wallets

Web3 and mobile wallets are under active development by Blockchain Foundry Inc as WebAssembly applications and expected for release not long after mainnet deployment of Syscoin Core 4.2. Both of these will be multi-coin wallets that support Syscoin, SPTs, Ethereum, and ERC-20 tokens. The Web3 wallet will provide functionality similar to Metamask.
Syscoin Platform and tokens are already integrated with Blockbook. Custom hardware wallet support currently exists via ElectrumSys. First-class HW wallet integration through apps such as Ledger Live will exist after 4.2.
Current supported wallets
Syscoin Spark Desktop
Syscoin-Qt

Explorers

Mainnet: https://sys1.bcfn.ca (Blockbook)
Testnet: https://explorer-testnet.blockchainfoundry.co

Thank you for close consideration of our proposal. We look forward to feedback, and to working with the Reddit community to implement an ideal solution using Syscoin Platform!

submitted by sidhujag to ethereum [link] [comments]

ETHE & GBTC (Grayscale) Frequently Asked Questions

It is no doubt Grayscale’s booming popularity as a mainstream investment has caused a lot of community hullabaloo lately. As such, I felt it was worth making a FAQ regarding the topic. I’m looking to update this as needed and of course am open to suggestions / adding any questions.
The goal is simply to have a thread we can link to anyone with questions on Grayscale and its products. Instead of explaining the same thing 3 times a day, shoot those posters over to this thread. My hope is that these questions are answered in a fairly simple and easy to understand manner. I think as the sub grows it will be a nice reference point for newcomers.
Disclaimer: I do NOT work for Grayscale and as such am basing all these answers on information that can be found on their website / reports. (Grayscale’s official FAQ can be found here). I also do NOT have a finance degree, I do NOT have a Series 6 / 7 / 140-whatever, and I do NOT work with investment products for my day job. I have an accounting background and work within the finance world so I have the general ‘business’ knowledge to put it all together, but this is all info determined in my best faith effort as a layman. The point being is this --- it is possible I may explain something wrong or missed the technical terms, and if that occurs I am more than happy to update anything that can be proven incorrect
Everything below will be in reference to ETHE but will apply to GBTC as well. If those two segregate in any way, I will note that accordingly.
What is Grayscale? 
Grayscale is the company that created the ETHE product. Their website is https://grayscale.co/
What is ETHE? 
ETHE is essentially a stock that intends to loosely track the price of ETH. It does so by having each ETHE be backed by a specific amount of ETH that is held on chain. Initially, the newly minted ETHE can only be purchased by institutions and accredited investors directly from Grayscale. Once a year has passed (6 months for GBTC) it can then be listed on the OTCQX Best Market exchange for secondary trading. Once listed on OTCQX, anyone investor can purchase at this point. Additional information on ETHE can be found here.
So ETHE is an ETF? 
No. For technical reasons beyond my personal understandings it is not labeled an ETF. I know it all flows back to the “Securities Act Rule 144”, but due to my limited knowledge on SEC regulations I don’t want to misspeak past that. If anyone is more knowledgeable on the subject I am happy to input their answer here.
How long has ETHE existed? 
ETHE was formed 12/14/2017. GBTC was formed 9/25/2013.
How is ETHE created? 
The trust will issue shares to “Authorized Participants” in groups of 100 shares (called baskets). Authorized Participants are the only persons that may place orders to create these baskets and they do it on behalf of the investor.
Source: Creation and Redemption of Shares section on page 39 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Note – The way their reports word this makes it sound like there is an army of authorizers doing the dirty work, but in reality there is only one Authorized Participant. At this moment the “Genesis” company is the sole Authorized Participant. Genesis is owned by the “Digital Currency Group, Inc.” which is the parent company of Grayscale as well. (And to really go down the rabbit hole it looks like DCG is the parent company of CoinDesk and is “backing 150+ companies across 30 countries, including Coinbase, Ripple, and Chainalysis.”)
Source: Digital Currency Group, Inc. informational section on page 77 of the “Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (BTC) Form 10-K (2019)” – Located Here
Source: Barry E. Silbert informational section on page 75 of the “Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (BTC) Form 10-K (2019)” – Located Here
How does Grayscale acquire the ETH to collateralize the ETHE product? 
An Investor may acquire ETHE by paying in cash or exchanging ETH already owned.
Source: Creation and Redemption of Shares section on page 40 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Where does Grayscale store their ETH? Does it have a specific wallet address we can follow? 
ETH is stored with Coinbase Custody Trust Company, LLC. I am unaware of any specific address or set of addresses that can be used to verify the ETH is actually there.
As an aside - I would actually love to see if anyone knows more about this as it’s something that’s sort of peaked my interest after being asked about it… I find it doubtful we can find that however.
Source: Part C. Business Information, Item 8, subsection A. on page 16 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Can ETHE be redeemed for ETH? 
No, currently there is no way to give your shares of ETHE back to Grayscale to receive ETH back. The only method of getting back into ETH would be to sell your ETHE to someone else and then use those proceeds to buy ETH yourself.
Source: Redemption Procedures on page 41 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Why are they not redeeming shares? 
I think the report summarizes it best:
Redemptions of Shares are currently not permitted and the Trust is unable to redeem Shares. Subject to receipt of regulatory approval from the SEC and approval by the Sponsor in its sole discretion, the Trust may in the future operate a redemption program. Because the Trust does not believe that the SEC would, at this time, entertain an application for the waiver of rules needed in order to operate an ongoing redemption program, the Trust currently has no intention of seeking regulatory approval from the SEC to operate an ongoing redemption program.
Source: Redemption Procedures on page 41 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
What is the fee structure? 
ETHE has an annual fee of 2.5%. GBTC has an annual fee of 2.0%. Fees are paid by selling the underlying ETH / BTC collateralizing the asset.
Source: ETHE’s informational page on Grayscale’s website - Located Here
Source: Description of Trust on page 31 & 32 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
What is the ratio of ETH to ETHE? 
At the time of posting (6/19/2020) each ETHE share is backed by .09391605 ETH. Each share of GBTC is backed by .00096038 BTC.
ETHE & GBTC’s specific information page on Grayscale’s website updates the ratio daily – Located Here
For a full historical look at this ratio, it can be found on the Grayscale home page on the upper right side if you go to Tax Documents > 2019 Tax Documents > Grayscale Ethereum Trust 2019 Tax Letter.
Why is the ratio not 1:1? Why is it always decreasing? 
While I cannot say for certain why the initial distribution was not a 1:1 backing, it is more than likely to keep the price down and allow more investors a chance to purchase ETHE / GBTC.
As noted above, fees are paid by selling off the ETH collateralizing ETHE. So this number will always be trending downward as time goes on.
Source: Description of Trust on page 32 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
I keep hearing about how this is locked supply… explain? 
As noted above, there is currently no redemption program for converting your ETHE back into ETH. This means that once an ETHE is issued, it will remain in circulation until a redemption program is formed --- something that doesn’t seem to be too urgent for the SEC or Grayscale at the moment. Tiny amounts will naturally be removed due to fees, but the bulk of the asset is in there for good.
Knowing that ETHE cannot be taken back and destroyed at this time, the ETH collateralizing it will not be removed from the wallet for the foreseeable future. While it is not fully locked in the sense of say a totally lost key, it is not coming out any time soon.
Per their annual statement:
The Trust’s ETH will be transferred out of the ETH Account only in the following circumstances: (i) transferred to pay the Sponsor’s Fee or any Additional Trust Expenses, (ii) distributed in connection with the redemption of Baskets (subject to the Trust’s obtaining regulatory approval from the SEC to operate an ongoing redemption program and the consent of the Sponsor), (iii) sold on an as-needed basis to pay Additional Trust Expenses or (iv) sold on behalf of the Trust in the event the Trust terminates and liquidates its assets or as otherwise required by law or regulation.
Source: Description of Trust on page 31 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Grayscale now owns a huge chunk of both ETH and BTC’s supply… should we be worried about manipulation, a sell off to crash the market crash, a staking cartel? 
First, it’s important to remember Grayscale is a lot more akin to an exchange then say an investment firm. Grayscale is working on behalf of its investors to create this product for investor control. Grayscale doesn’t ‘control’ the ETH it holds any more then Coinbase ‘controls’ the ETH in its hot wallet. (Note: There are likely some varying levels of control, but specific to this topic Grayscale cannot simply sell [legally, at least] the ETH by their own decision in the same manner Coinbase wouldn't be able to either.)
That said, there shouldn’t be any worry in the short to medium time-frame. As noted above, Grayscale can’t really remove ETH other than for fees or termination of the product. At 2.5% a year, fees are noise in terms of volume. Grayscale seems to be the fastest growing product in the crypto space at the moment and termination of the product seems unlikely.
IF redemptions were to happen tomorrow, it’s extremely unlikely we would see a mass exodus out of the product to redeem for ETH. And even if there was incentive to get back to ETH, the premium makes it so that it would be much more cost effective to just sell your ETHE on the secondary market and buy ETH yourself. Remember, any redemption is up to the investors and NOT something Grayscale has direct control over.
Yes, but what about [insert criminal act here]… 
Alright, yes. Technically nothing is stopping Grayscale from selling all the ETH / BTC and running off to the Bahamas (Hawaii?). BUT there is no real reason for them to do so. Barry is an extremely public figure and it won’t be easy for him to get away with that. Grayscale’s Bitcoin Trust creates SEC reports weekly / bi-weekly and I’m sure given the sentiment towards crypto is being watched carefully. Plus, Grayscale is making tons of consistent revenue and thus has little to no incentive to give that up for a quick buck.
That’s a lot of ‘happy little feels’ Bob, is there even an independent audit or is this Tether 2.0? 
Actually yes, an independent auditor report can be found in their annual reports. It is clearly aimed more towards the financial side and I doubt the auditors are crypto savants, but it is at least one extra set of eyes. Auditors are Friedman LLP – Auditor since 2015.
Source: Independent Auditor Report starting on page 116 (of the PDF itself) of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
As mentioned by user TheCrpytosAndBloods (In Comments Below), a fun fact:
The company’s auditors Friedman LLP were also coincidentally TetheBitfinex’s auditors until They controversially parted ways in 2018 when the Tether controversy was at its height. I am not suggesting for one moment that there is anything shady about DCG - I just find it interesting it’s the same auditor.
“Grayscale sounds kind of lame” / “Not your keys not your crypto!” / “Why is anyone buying this, it sounds like a scam?” 
Welp, for starters this honestly is not really a product aimed at the people likely to be reading this post. To each their own, but do remember just because something provides no value to you doesn’t mean it can’t provide value to someone else. That said some of the advertised benefits are as follows:
So for example, I can set up an IRA at a brokerage account that has $0 trading fees. Then I can trade GBTC and ETHE all day without having to worry about tracking my taxes. All with the relative safety something like E-Trade provides over Binance.
As for how it benefits the everyday ETH holder? I think the supply lock is a positive. I also think this product exposes the Ethereum ecosystem to people who otherwise wouldn’t know about it.
Why is there a premium? Why is ETHE’s premium so insanely high compared to GBTC’s premium? 
There are a handful of theories of why a premium exists at all, some even mentioned in the annual report. The short list is as follows:
Why is ETHE’s so much higher the GBTC’s? Again, a few thoughts:

Are there any other differences between ETHE and GBTC? 
I touched on a few of the smaller differences, but one of the more interesting changes is GBTC is now a “SEC reporting company” as of January 2020. Which again goes beyond my scope of knowledge so I won’t comment on it too much… but the net result is GBTC is now putting out weekly / bi-weekly 8-K’s and annual 10-K’s. This means you can track GBTC that much easier at the moment as well as there is an extra layer of validity to the product IMO.
I’m looking for some statistics on ETHE… such as who is buying, how much is bought, etc? 
There is a great Q1 2020 report I recommend you give a read that has a lot of cool graphs and data on the product. It’s a little GBTC centric, but there is some ETHE data as well. It can be found here hidden within the 8-K filings.Q1 2020 is the 4/16/2020 8-K filing.
For those more into a GAAP style report see the 2019 annual 10-K of the same location.
Is Grayscale only just for BTC and ETH? 
No, there are other products as well. In terms of a secondary market product, ETCG is the Ethereum Classic version of ETHE. Fun Fact – ETCG was actually put out to the secondary market first. It also has a 3% fee tied to it where 1% of it goes to some type of ETC development fund.
In terms of institutional and accredited investors, there are a few ‘fan favorites’ such as Bitcoin Cash, Litcoin, Stellar, XRP, and Zcash. Something called Horizion (Backed by ZEN I guess? Idk to be honest what that is…). And a diversified Mutual Fund type fund that has a little bit of all of those. None of these products are available on the secondary market.
Are there alternatives to Grayscale? 
I know they exist, but I don’t follow them. I’ll leave this as a “to be edited” section and will add as others comment on what they know.
Per user Over-analyser (in comments below):
Coinshares (Formerly XBT provider) are the only similar product I know of. BTC, ETH, XRP and LTC as Exchange Traded Notes (ETN).
It looks like they are fully backed with the underlying crypto (no premium).
https://coinshares.com/etps/xbt-provideinvestor-resources/daily-hedging-position
Denominated in SEK and EUR. Certainly available in some UK pensions (SIPP).
As asked by pegcity - Okay so I was under the impression you can just give them your own ETH and get ETHE, but do you get 11 ETHE per ETH or do you get the market value of ETH in USD worth of ETHE? 
I have always understood that the ETHE issued directly through Grayscale is issued without the premium. As in, if I were to trade 1 ETH for ETHE I would get 11, not say only 2 or 3 because the secondary market premium is so high. And if I were paying cash only I would be paying the price to buy 1 ETH to get my 11 ETHE. Per page 39 of their annual statement, it reads as follows:
The Trust will issue Shares to Authorized Participants from time to time, but only in one or more Baskets (with a Basket being a block of 100 Shares). The Trust will not issue fractions of a Basket. The creation (and, should the Trust commence a redemption program, redemption) of Baskets will be made only in exchange for the delivery to the Trust, or the distribution by the Trust, of the number of whole and fractional ETH represented by each Basket being created (or, should the Trust commence a redemption program, redeemed), which is determined by dividing (x) the number of ETH owned by the Trust at 4:00 p.m., New York time, on the trade date of a creation or redemption order, after deducting the number of ETH representing the U.S. dollar value of accrued but unpaid fees and expenses of the Trust (converted using the ETH Index Price at such time, and carried to the eighth decimal place), by (y) the number of Shares outstanding at such time (with the quotient so obtained calculated to one one-hundred-millionth of one ETH (i.e., carried to the eighth decimal place)), and multiplying such quotient by 100 (the “Basket ETH Amount”). All questions as to the calculation of the Basket ETH Amount will be conclusively determined by the Sponsor and will be final and binding on all persons interested in the Trust. The Basket ETH Amount multiplied by the number of Baskets being created or redeemed is the “Total Basket ETH Amount.” The number of ETH represented by a Share will gradually decrease over time as the Trust’s ETH are used to pay the Trust’s expenses. Each Share represented approximately 0.0950 ETH and 0.0974 ETH as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

submitted by Bob-Rossi to ethfinance [link] [comments]

Crypto Weekly News

What important crypto events happened last week?
Cryptocurrencies
Monero Presents New Legal Framework In Defense Of Privacy Coins
Riccardo Spagni presented the result of more than a year's work. A whitepaper titled "Anti-Money Laundering Regulation of Privacy-Enabling Cryptocurrencies" has been published. The document was conceived as a new legal framework to protect confidential coins such as Monero, Zcash, Dash, Komodo, and others.
Tether Is Moving 1 Billion More USDT Coins From TRON To Ethereum Blockchain
The total supply of coins will not change. The company carried out the swap on September 15, coordinating its actions "with a third party". In recent weeks, this is the second such stablecoin transfer between blockchains — on August 20, the issuer also moved USDT 1 billion from Tron to Ethereum. Another piece of news about Tether: USDT capitalization exceeded $15 billion, having increased by $3 billion in just a month.
Projects and Updates
Kraken Receives Licence To Establish First U.S Digital Assets Bank
The Kraken Bitcoin exchange was the first in the United States to receive the status of a special purpose depository institution (SPDI), giving it the functions of a traditional financial institution. The corresponding application of the Californian company was approved by the Wyoming Banking Council. This will allow Kraken to opt-out of third-party vendors to perform certain banking functions on its own.
Official Ethereum Proof-of-Stake Algorithm Proposal Published
Ethereum Foundation Lead Developer Danny Ryan has published the official proposal EIP-2982, which suggests the launch of Ethereum 2.0 and the transition from the Proof-of-Work consensus algorithm to Proof-of-Stake. If approved by other leading developers, it will be possible to launch Serenity, Ethereum 2.0 phase zero. Within its framework, the Beacon Chain will be activated, which will use Proof-of-Stake.
Uniswap Provides All Its Users With $1.200
Leading decentralized exchange (DEX) Uniswap has released the UNI governance token. It was listed on the Binance exchange almost immediately. About 13000 Uniswap users have already requested tokens.
Regulations
New Draft Law Suggests The European Union Is Set To Regulate Cryptocurrencies
The European Commission proposed to establish a legal framework for cryptocurrencies, security tokens, and stablecoins by analogy with the requirements for traditional financial instruments. This is stated in the Cryptocurrency Asset Markets Bill. The bill proposes to treat cryptocurrency assets like any other financial instrument. According to the European Commission, this will provide legal clarity.
Digital Assets Recognized As Securities In Nigeria
The regulator clarified that cryptocurrencies offer public alternative investment opportunities. Digital assets can be used as a medium of exchange, settlement, and accumulation. In order to protect investors from risks and not violate the integrity of the market, crypto assets must be controlled on an equal basis with securities. The main task of regulation is not to discourage the development of new technologies, but to ensure fair market competition and adherence to ethical standards.
Hacking
Japanese Crypto Exchange Sues Binance for Role in $63 Million Bitcoin Hack
The Japanese company Fisco Cryptocurrency Exchange, Inc has filed a US lawsuit against Binance Holdings Ltd., accusing it of providing a service to launder cryptocurrency stolen from the Zaif exchange in 2018. Fisco acquired Zaif in 2018 shortly after the hack. Over $9 million in stolen assets could have been funneled through Binance. The company notes that analysts were able to track the movement of all stolen $63 million to one bitcoin address. Subsequently, 1,451.7 BTC were sent from it to Binance addresses.
New Virus Attacks Microsoft SQL Database Servers For Monero Mining
Tencent's cybersecurity division has discovered a new miner virus called MrbMiner. The tactics of the virus are quite simple — the botnet scans the available IP addresses in search of Microsoft SQL servers, and if it detects such, it tries to log in under the administrator account using a brute-force password. If successful, the virus downloads the assm.exe file, which implements a reboot mechanism and creates a special account for hackers to access the server. After that, MrbMiner downloads a miner for mining the anonymous cryptocurrency Monero (XMR).
Mass adoption
Bahamas Geared to Launch Central Bank Digital Currency
The Bahamas wants to be the first country in the world to roll out a government-backed virtual currency nationwide and announced they will launch a central bank-issued cryptocurrency (CBDC) in October. The digital currency, dubbed "sand dollar", is designed to increase the financial availability of remote islands within the archipelago state.
Alibaba On Track To Be The Largest Blockchain Patent Holder By End Of 2020
Computer giant IBM risks losing the title of the largest blockchain patent holder to the Chinese corporation Alibaba. Since the beginning of the year, Alibaba has published ten times more patents than its closest competitor, IBM. According to analysts, if the pace is maintained, the Chinese corporation will become the largest patent holder by the end of the year.
France Begins Central Bank Digital Currency Testing
Société Générale — one of the largest financial conglomerates in Europe — will test the central bank digital currency (CBDC) on the Tezos blockchain. The Bank of France, as a result of the selection of partners, chose the Forge blockchain platform to test CBDC for interbank settlements. As part of the experiment, the feasibility of digitizing financial securities and the possibility of settlements on them using CBDC will be studied. In addition to Nomadic Labs, several technology service providers and consultants will participate in the testing.
Kazakhstan Will Develop A Blockchain Service For Ensuring The Security Of Personal Data
It will allow citizens of the country to control the use of their personal data. The service is planned to be introduced by the end of this year.
People
Kiss Rock Group Member Is Ready To Buy Bitcoin
Gene Simmons supported Cameron Winklevoss's request to use bank accounts to buy Bitcoin and Ether. The co-founder of Gemini tweeted that people who do not have access to banking services find it difficult to become the owners of cryptocurrency and that they need to take advantage of the benefits. The musician commented as follows: "I will. I am." For this moment, the most common opinion on Twitter is that Simmons is already buying cryptocurrency and will continue to increase the amount of Bitcoin he owns.
That’s all for now! For more details follow us on Twitter, subscribe to our YouTube channel, join our Telegram.
submitted by CoinjoyAssistant to CryptoCurrencies [link] [comments]

Crypto Weekly News — September, 18

What important crypto events happened last week?

Cryptocurrencies

Monero Presents New Legal Framework In Defense Of Privacy Coins
Riccardo Spagni presented the result of more than a year's work. A whitepaper titled "Anti-Money Laundering Regulation of Privacy-Enabling Cryptocurrencies" has been published. The document was conceived as a new legal framework to protect confidential coins such as Monero, Zcash, Dash, Komodo, and others.
Tether Is Moving 1 Billion More USDT Coins From TRON To Ethereum Blockchain
The total supply of coins will not change. The company carried out the swap on September 15, coordinating its actions "with a third party". In recent weeks, this is the second such stablecoin transfer between blockchains — on August 20, the issuer also moved USDT 1 billion from Tron to Ethereum. Another piece of news about Tether: USDT capitalization exceeded $15 billion, having increased by $3 billion in just a month.

Projects and Updates

Kraken Receives Licence To Establish First U.S Digital Assets Bank
The Kraken Bitcoin exchange was the first in the United States to receive the status of a special purpose depository institution (SPDI), giving it the functions of a traditional financial institution. The corresponding application of the Californian company was approved by the Wyoming Banking Council. This will allow Kraken to opt-out of third-party vendors to perform certain banking functions on its own.
Official Ethereum Proof-of-Stake Algorithm Proposal Published
Ethereum Foundation Lead Developer Danny Ryan has published the official proposal EIP-2982, which suggests the launch of Ethereum 2.0 and the transition from the Proof-of-Work consensus algorithm to Proof-of-Stake. If approved by other leading developers, it will be possible to launch Serenity, Ethereum 2.0 phase zero. Within its framework, the Beacon Chain will be activated, which will use Proof-of-Stake.
Uniswap Provides All Its Users With $1.200
Leading decentralized exchange (DEX) Uniswap has released the UNI governance token. It was listed on the Binance exchange almost immediately. About 13000 Uniswap users have already requested tokens.

Regulations

New Draft Law Suggests The European Union Is Set To Regulate Cryptocurrencies
The European Commission proposed to establish a legal framework for cryptocurrencies, security tokens, and stablecoins by analogy with the requirements for traditional financial instruments. This is stated in the Cryptocurrency Asset Markets Bill. The bill proposes to treat cryptocurrency assets like any other financial instrument. According to the European Commission, this will provide legal clarity.
Digital Assets Recognized As Securities In Nigeria
The regulator clarified that cryptocurrencies offer public alternative investment opportunities. Digital assets can be used as a medium of exchange, settlement, and accumulation. In order to protect investors from risks and not violate the integrity of the market, crypto assets must be controlled on an equal basis with securities. The main task of regulation is not to discourage the development of new technologies, but to ensure fair market competition and adherence to ethical standards.

Hacking

Japanese Crypto Exchange Sues Binance for Role in $63 Million Bitcoin Hack
The Japanese company Fisco Cryptocurrency Exchange, Inc has filed a US lawsuit against Binance Holdings Ltd., accusing it of providing a service to launder cryptocurrency stolen from the Zaif exchange in 2018. Fisco acquired Zaif in 2018 shortly after the hack. Over $9 million in stolen assets could have been funneled through Binance. The company notes that analysts were able to track the movement of all stolen $63 million to one bitcoin address. Subsequently, 1,451.7 BTC were sent from it to Binance addresses.
New Virus Attacks Microsoft SQL Database Servers For Monero Mining
Tencent's cybersecurity division has discovered a new miner virus called MrbMiner. The tactics of the virus are quite simple — the botnet scans the available IP addresses in search of Microsoft SQL servers, and if it detects such, it tries to log in under the administrator account using a brute-force password. If successful, the virus downloads the assm.exe file, which implements a reboot mechanism and creates a special account for hackers to access the server. After that, MrbMiner downloads a miner for mining the anonymous cryptocurrency Monero (XMR).

Mass adoption

Bahamas Geared to Launch Central Bank Digital Currency
The Bahamas wants to be the first country in the world to roll out a government-backed virtual currency nationwide and announced they will launch a central bank-issued cryptocurrency (CBDC) in October. The digital currency, dubbed "sand dollar", is designed to increase the financial availability of remote islands within the archipelago state.
Alibaba On Track To Be The Largest Blockchain Patent Holder By End Of 2020
Computer giant IBM risks losing the title of the largest blockchain patent holder to the Chinese corporation Alibaba. Since the beginning of the year, Alibaba has published ten times more patents than its closest competitor, IBM. According to analysts, if the pace is maintained, the Chinese corporation will become the largest patent holder by the end of the year.
France Begins Central Bank Digital Currency Testing
Société Générale — one of the largest financial conglomerates in Europe — will test the central bank digital currency (CBDC) on the Tezos blockchain. The Bank of France, as a result of the selection of partners, chose the Forge blockchain platform to test CBDC for interbank settlements. As part of the experiment, the feasibility of digitizing financial securities and the possibility of settlements on them using CBDC will be studied. In addition to Nomadic Labs, several technology service providers and consultants will participate in the testing.
Kazakhstan Will Develop A Blockchain Service For Ensuring The Security Of Personal Data
It will allow citizens of the country to control the use of their personal data. The service is planned to be introduced by the end of this year.

People

Kiss Rock Group Member Is Ready To Buy Bitcoin
Gene Simmons supported Cameron Winklevoss's request to use bank accounts to buy Bitcoin and Ether. The co-founder of Gemini tweeted that people who do not have access to banking services find it difficult to become the owners of cryptocurrency and that they need to take advantage of the benefits. The musician commented as follows: "I will. I am." For this moment, the most common opinion on Twitter is that Simmons is already buying cryptocurrency and will continue to increase the amount of Bitcoin he owns.
That’s all for now! For more details follow us on Twitter, subscribe to our YouTube channel, join our Telegram.
submitted by CoinjoyAssistant to u/CoinjoyAssistant [link] [comments]

Crypto Weekly News

What important crypto events happened last week?
Cryptocurrencies
Monero Presents New Legal Framework In Defense Of Privacy Coins
Riccardo Spagni presented the result of more than a year's work. A whitepaper titled "Anti-Money Laundering Regulation of Privacy-Enabling Cryptocurrencies" has been published. The document was conceived as a new legal framework to protect confidential coins such as Monero, Zcash, Dash, Komodo, and others.
Tether Is Moving 1 Billion More USDT Coins From TRON To Ethereum Blockchain
The total supply of coins will not change. The company carried out the swap on September 15, coordinating its actions "with a third party". In recent weeks, this is the second such stablecoin transfer between blockchains — on August 20, the issuer also moved USDT 1 billion from Tron to Ethereum. Another piece of news about Tether: USDT capitalization exceeded $15 billion, having increased by $3 billion in just a month.
Projects and Updates
Kraken Receives Licence To Establish First U.S Digital Assets Bank
The Kraken Bitcoin exchange was the first in the United States to receive the status of a special purpose depository institution (SPDI), giving it the functions of a traditional financial institution. The corresponding application of the Californian company was approved by the Wyoming Banking Council. This will allow Kraken to opt-out of third-party vendors to perform certain banking functions on its own.
Official Ethereum Proof-of-Stake Algorithm Proposal Published
Ethereum Foundation Lead Developer Danny Ryan has published the official proposal EIP-2982, which suggests the launch of Ethereum 2.0 and the transition from the Proof-of-Work consensus algorithm to Proof-of-Stake. If approved by other leading developers, it will be possible to launch Serenity, Ethereum 2.0 phase zero. Within its framework, the Beacon Chain will be activated, which will use Proof-of-Stake.
Uniswap Provides All Its Users With $1.200
Leading decentralized exchange (DEX) Uniswap has released the UNI governance token. It was listed on the Binance exchange almost immediately. About 13000 Uniswap users have already requested tokens.
Regulations
New Draft Law Suggests The European Union Is Set To Regulate Cryptocurrencies
The European Commission proposed to establish a legal framework for cryptocurrencies, security tokens, and stablecoins by analogy with the requirements for traditional financial instruments. This is stated in the Cryptocurrency Asset Markets Bill. The bill proposes to treat cryptocurrency assets like any other financial instrument. According to the European Commission, this will provide legal clarity.
Digital Assets Recognized As Securities In Nigeria
The regulator clarified that cryptocurrencies offer public alternative investment opportunities. Digital assets can be used as a medium of exchange, settlement, and accumulation. In order to protect investors from risks and not violate the integrity of the market, crypto assets must be controlled on an equal basis with securities. The main task of regulation is not to discourage the development of new technologies, but to ensure fair market competition and adherence to ethical standards.
Hacking
Japanese Crypto Exchange Sues Binance for Role in $63 Million Bitcoin Hack
The Japanese company Fisco Cryptocurrency Exchange, Inc has filed a US lawsuit against Binance Holdings Ltd., accusing it of providing a service to launder cryptocurrency stolen from the Zaif exchange in 2018. Fisco acquired Zaif in 2018 shortly after the hack. Over $9 million in stolen assets could have been funneled through Binance. The company notes that analysts were able to track the movement of all stolen $63 million to one bitcoin address. Subsequently, 1,451.7 BTC were sent from it to Binance addresses.
New Virus Attacks Microsoft SQL Database Servers For Monero Mining
Tencent's cybersecurity division has discovered a new miner virus called MrbMiner. The tactics of the virus are quite simple — the botnet scans the available IP addresses in search of Microsoft SQL servers, and if it detects such, it tries to log in under the administrator account using a brute-force password. If successful, the virus downloads the assm.exe file, which implements a reboot mechanism and creates a special account for hackers to access the server. After that, MrbMiner downloads a miner for mining the anonymous cryptocurrency Monero (XMR).
Mass adoption
Bahamas Geared to Launch Central Bank Digital Currency
The Bahamas wants to be the first country in the world to roll out a government-backed virtual currency nationwide and announced they will launch a central bank-issued cryptocurrency (CBDC) in October. The digital currency, dubbed "sand dollar", is designed to increase the financial availability of remote islands within the archipelago state.
Alibaba On Track To Be The Largest Blockchain Patent Holder By End Of 2020
Computer giant IBM risks losing the title of the largest blockchain patent holder to the Chinese corporation Alibaba. Since the beginning of the year, Alibaba has published ten times more patents than its closest competitor, IBM. According to analysts, if the pace is maintained, the Chinese corporation will become the largest patent holder by the end of the year.
France Begins Central Bank Digital Currency Testing
Société Générale — one of the largest financial conglomerates in Europe — will test the central bank digital currency (CBDC) on the Tezos blockchain. The Bank of France, as a result of the selection of partners, chose the Forge blockchain platform to test CBDC for interbank settlements. As part of the experiment, the feasibility of digitizing financial securities and the possibility of settlements on them using CBDC will be studied. In addition to Nomadic Labs, several technology service providers and consultants will participate in the testing.
Kazakhstan Will Develop A Blockchain Service For Ensuring The Security Of Personal Data
It will allow citizens of the country to control the use of their personal data. The service is planned to be introduced by the end of this year.
People
Kiss Rock Group Member Is Ready To Buy Bitcoin
Gene Simmons supported Cameron Winklevoss's request to use bank accounts to buy Bitcoin and Ether. The co-founder of Gemini tweeted that people who do not have access to banking services find it difficult to become the owners of cryptocurrency and that they need to take advantage of the benefits. The musician commented as follows: "I will. I am." For this moment, the most common opinion on Twitter is that Simmons is already buying cryptocurrency and will continue to increase the amount of Bitcoin he owns.
That’s all for now! For more details follow us on Twitter, subscribe to our YouTube channel, join our Telegram.
submitted by CoinjoyAssistant to cryptoeconomynet [link] [comments]

As awareness is increasing for Quant after recent announcements, here is an overview and links to find more info about this fantastic project

As awareness is increasing for Quant after recent announcements, here is an overview and links to find more info about this fantastic project
1/ As awareness is increasing for @quant_network after recent announcements I encourage everyone to see the thread below providing more details around the project. Excellent Team, Tech, Use cases, Tokenomics, Partners has it all.
https://preview.redd.it/usj6bepzvz751.png?width=1345&format=png&auto=webp&s=bf859c622fcf2fdebf9c1be24b369e7a8312119d
2/ Quant’s Overledger Blockchain Operating System not only provides interoperability between all the leading Enterprise and Public Blockchains but also connecting the world’s networks to blockchain with just 3 lines of code.
https://preview.redd.it/1tf32qb1wz751.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=f6d7c437d5b764916fab8fdfefe787ad2afce38f
3/ Unlike other solutions, Overledger solves interoperability at scale without the overhead/bottleneck/single point of failure of adding another blockchain in the middle, nor does it impose restrictions / require blockchains to fork their code to connect.
https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/what-is-a-blockchain-operating-system-and-what-are-the-benefits-c561d8275de6
4/ Overledger is not a blockchain itself, but an OS that runs on top of multiple blockchains, providing a platform to build and use multi chain applications and abstracts all of the complexities involved with integrating with all the different blockchains
https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/blockchain-operating-system-learning-from-the-past-to-build-a-better-future-92142c823d30
5/ #Interoperability is more than just Blockchain-to-Blockchain. True Interoperability is Any-to-Any.@quant_network are launching a universal connector for Overledger which allows for any API to connect to any Blockchain through Overledger.
https://preview.redd.it/taxpb9p3wz751.png?width=806&format=png&auto=webp&s=8c527753dc62ab00756c8a32fa16134b91df8821
6/ This will mean APIs like IFTTT/ZapiePayment APIs/Banking APIs/IoT APIs etc can now seamlessly interoperate with Blockchains through Overledger. You can integrate pretty much any tech and API into Overledger
https://preview.redd.it/7f35q465wz751.png?width=1199&format=png&auto=webp&s=09dd7480212eb44903a683e81ecb9878ff077fbe
7/ Quant's approach is superior, enabling scalable interoperability, can connect any blockchain / existing network, future proof and without imposing limitations / requiring connected chains to fork their code
See https://twitter.com/CryptoSeq/status/1270237869043572737
and this article https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/quant-networks-overledger-part-two-the-layers-of-overledger-ea23a7148af1
8/ Every Blockchain has their own advantages and disadvantages. Why compromise on one platform when with Multi-chain Applications (MAPPs) you can combine the best features from multiple? Why have the risk and limitations of Vendor Lock in?
9/ Only Overledger enables Treaty Contracts, where you can deploy, query and execute multi-chain smart contracts. Bridge and extend smart contracts across multiple blockchains.
10/ Overledger Network is due to launch in a few days and is a Network of Networks, which allows enterprise and communities stakeholders to access and participate in a growing hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem
https://preview.redd.it/00z37ih7wz751.png?width=679&format=png&auto=webp&s=b073064f717953e6329a07bc61f3d77dd334f643
11/ Enterprises, banks, central banks, trading venues, etc will be able to host their own secure dedicated gateways, enabling secure connectivity to permissioned networks, permissionless networks, ecosystems, consortia and other distributed technologies.
https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/the-network-of-networks-scalable-interoperability-to-unleash-the-true-potential-of-blockchain-c54e7d373d2d
12/ Community members will also be able to run an Overledger gateway to further enhance the scalability, decentralisation and optimise network latency, providing enterprises, developers and users choice to use the closest gateway when accessing permissionless blockchains.
13/ The Overledger gateways will create a scalable p2p network that shares the transaction and volume between participants and chooses the closest or largest node to transact with
https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/how-the-overledger-network-community-treasury-powers-the-network-of-networks-b716b01d8284
14/ Quant will be open sourcing the connectors so that anyone can connect their favourite blockchain to Overledger Network and benefit from increased adoption from the Enterprises, Developers and users of all the existing connected blockchains / networks.
15/ Partners: Quant have partnered with SIA, the leading financial network provider in Europe and both companies are confident that this development will play an integral part in building the financial infrastructure of the future globally
https://www.sia.eu/en/media-events/news-press-releases/quant-network-and-sia-successfully-tested-blockchain-interoperability
16/ SIA provide a private financial network which is the backbone of the European financial market. SIA and SWIFT are the only 2 providers for the Eurosystem Single Market Infrastructure Gateway, granting access to all RTGS, Securities and Instant Payment transactions for Europe.
17/ Overledger is integrated into SIAChain part of that private financial network (SIAnet) that is the backbone of the european financial market, enabling the 580 banks, central banks, trading venues that are building projects on SIAChain to benefit from scalable Interoperability
18/ Some of the largest blockcain projects in the world are being launched on SIAChain, one of those is the Spunta project.
Spunta is a huge project consisting of the entire italian banking system and looks to further expand into europe
https://www.r3.com/videos/italian-banking-association-and-r3/
19/ Another project building on SIAChain is Fideiussioni Digitali, a digital sureties project with the Bank of Italy sia.eu/en/media-event… as well as potential trial platform for digital euro
To read more about the partnership with SIA is a game changer
https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/quant-network-partner-with-sia-a-game-changer-for-mass-blockchain-adoption-by-financial-9059ab411069
20/ Quant have partnered with Oracle (the 2nd largest Software provider in the world) as a Fintech Partner to deliver financial services infrastructure.
Quant are enabling #interoperability of DLTs to deliver mission-critical business applications and workloads for FS clients.
https://preview.redd.it/o15tnnr9wz751.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=8aba1e61de76b39b4f82ce9a3f8a15b456b674f5
https://preview.redd.it/qdnu6piawz751.png?width=1012&format=png&auto=webp&s=b25bee3d43a6d6cc56eab1ad594c656c07658de1
21/ Oracle invited Quant to attend the leading financial event of the year - SWIFT SIBOS where Oracle were co-marketing with Quant to take their solution to their 480,000 clients including meetings with Banks / Central Banks
https://preview.redd.it/oer1rbxbwz751.png?width=770&format=png&auto=webp&s=802d9edfc82fe383aacacd16eabe733a20860703
22/ Another fantastic partnership is with @SimbaChain. It is a smart-contract-as-a-service (SCaaS) platform, enabling users across a variety of skill sets to implement dapps. They are developing on Overledger to allow them to deploy DAPPs across multiple connected blockchains.
23/ SIMBA Chain have recently been awarded a $9.5 million contract with the US Navy, they are also working with the US Air Force. They have a thriving ecosystem with over 2300 Organizations and 1150+ Applications developed.
https://cointelegraph.com/news/us-navy-bets-95m-on-blockchain-to-keep-messaging-secret
24/ Quant are working with clients in the Capital Market space such as AX Trading to bring more digital assets, securities and tokenised assets to their existing 800 institutional traders in an already live and connected FINRA and SEC regulated exchange.
https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/wall-street-2-0-17252ffd8919
25/ @quant_network's Interchange enables FIAT to be representing on a blockchain enabling Delivery vs Payment across multiple blockchains with cross chain atomic swaps as well as integrating into existing payment rails such as Faster Payments, CHAPS, SEPA, SWIFT, PAY UK
https://preview.redd.it/8w39juydwz751.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=0c8cfec6050ff2d6b27922ba640bfbb549fa9db1
https://preview.redd.it/fnxfo0qewz751.png?width=924&format=png&auto=webp&s=a3573556d7081e672bb86e31500f06a75f6ca662
26/ Enormous traditional exchanges like Fidelity, SIX, Nasdaq, Deutsche Borse will soon be entering the space, offering Digital Assets that are traded today on Crypto exchanges as well as tokenising Stocks, bringing in enormous amounts of investment from institutional investors.

https://preview.redd.it/w6scjpnvwz751.png?width=430&format=png&auto=webp&s=fc7051595807a58fbe5505b8ccacc58f135ded61
https://preview.redd.it/p5i5rwdwwz751.png?width=1100&format=png&auto=webp&s=e050c5fc5ac4614313e4fd737c1d2c5bf9dcfc31
27/ Quant were made a guarantor of Pay.uk - the UK’s largest payment network. Through this relationship, Quant will shape the payment ecosystem and help set the strategic direction of the Payments infrastructure and adopting the New Payments Architecture (NPA).
https://preview.redd.it/vqg19hngwz751.png?width=770&format=png&auto=webp&s=85bc997d93e052a8e1d0e574a1509c06cb996237
28/ Quant have also partnered with AUCloud and UKCloud to provide highly secure and interoperable Blockchain-as-a-Service for Australian Government and Defence and the critical national industries and supply chains that serve the nation.
https://www.quant.network/blog/quant-network-and-aucloud-partner-to-provide-worlds-first-blockchain-operating-system-for-government-and-critical-national-industries
29/ And others such Crowdz a leading blockchain-based trade finance company who are partnered with Barclaycard and recently received $5.5 million Series A Investment from Barclays Bank and others
As well as being a member of Hyperledger, MOBI and more
https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/large-enterprise-adoption-of-blockchain-is-happening-enabled-by-quant-networks-overledger-32321b650115
30/ The Team: Gilbert Verdian the CEO - his CV speaks for itself. Before starting Quant he was the Chief Information Security Officer for Vocalink (Mastercard) and was in charge of security for the entire payments in the UK managing £6 Trillion per year
https://www.gilbertverdian.com/cv/
31/ Martin Hargreaves recently joined as Chief Product Officer. He has 12 years experience at Vocalink and was the Vice President of Product. Vocalink (Mastercard) manage the entire payments system for the UK as well as other payment networks in the US, Singapore
https://preview.redd.it/mfzp5bfiwz751.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=d3f7f16e5f2f8ad27907f5b94e5af3aadb548d18
32/ Guy Dietrich the managing director of Rockefeller Capital (who manage assets worth over $30 billion) joined the board of directors and has attended meetings personally with Gilbert such as with the Financial Conduct Authority in the UK
https://preview.redd.it/on3qgijkwz751.png?width=619&format=png&auto=webp&s=d7a2c38edd0efd32487c33b0b552ed54eefd18d8
33/ Gilbert founded ISO TC 307, the globally recognized standard which has 57 countries working towards. This is vitally important for Enterprise / Government adoption and designed from the start to adhere to those rather than have to redesign it later.
https://preview.redd.it/b9ugauimwz751.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=6d9c483e3017310814220260711fd737edc55fcb
34/ Not only do they have enormous meaningful partnerships, advanced tech that's solving a problem which is very much needed and an excellent team, they also have the best tokenomics i have seen in a project and is integral to everything.
https://preview.redd.it/udtf3w9owz751.png?width=1345&format=png&auto=webp&s=42cfe696b777591bb034dd71e4bd782284e0bcf1
35/ Hedge against Inflation - has a total supply of just 14.6 million, no inflation, no new tokens minted and no huge % of tokens controlled by the team waiting to be released. Circulating supply is 12 Million which will reduce over time with QNT being locked up for licenses
36/ Whether it's #Bitcoin, Stable Coins, #DeFi, Central Bank Digital Currencies that come out on top or a combination of all, @quant_network is working with them all, connecting , , and working with multiple Central Banks all leading to more demand / usage of
37/ @Overledger has been designed to be future proof by not being a blockchain itself and performing #interoperability at a layer above, learning from what made TCP/IP so dominant after 40+ years. Whether it be Blockchain 1.0, 2.0, 3.0.. it doesnt matter,$QNT can connect them all
38/ Whether it be Permissioned or Permissionless Blockchains, @Overledger can connect them all. Currently $BTC, $ETH, $XRP(L), $EOS, $XLM, $IOTA, $DAG, #Corda, #Hyperledger, #Qurorum. $QNT is one of very few tokens that are needed even in a Permissioned Enterprise environment.
39/ Sustainable Business Model - Earning revenue (on track for $10 million last year), moving into an office twice the size in the UK and currently hiring 6 additional employees and expanding to other parts of the world despite the uncertainty many are facing.
40/ is needed for licenses, consumption fees, gateways (staking for higher throughput), signing of messages on #Overledger, minimum holdings of QNT.will be locked up reducing circulating supply so not just bought then immediately sold and needed by all inc enterprises
41/ Provides what all projects need - true scalable #interoperability not just between blockchains but legacy systems as well. With no added overhead of an additional consensus mechanism, doesn't impose restrictions or require connected chains to fork their code. Anybody can join
https://preview.redd.it/eq11fnjqwz751.png?width=679&format=png&auto=webp&s=3079aafd7c0717c878b10edf5819cee6d428e13e
43/ For Tokenomics see @quant_network's Utility Paper https://bit.ly/2xc25mA and @DavidW___'s article https://medium.com/@davW/a-deeper-look-into-the-quant-network-utility-token-qnt-valuation-dynamics-and-fundamentals-84633ca7cb58
https://twitter.com/CryptoSeq/status/1277555274405068801
https://threadreaderapp.com/thread/1277555274405068801.html
submitted by xSeq22x to QuantNetwork [link] [comments]

Major VIP Twitter Accounts Hijack Results In $118,000 BTC Loses

Major VIP Twitter Accounts Hijack Results In $118,000 BTC Loses

Billionaires Jeff Bezos And Bill Gates, Former U.S. President Barack Obama And Entrepreneur Elon Musk Are Some Of The Targeted Victims Of The Massive Twitter Hack Attack
One of the largest social media platforms in the world, Twitter, experienced a massive security breach, as hackers took control of several top-tier Twitter accounts, which belong to key public figures. Among the victims of the hacker attack are Kanye West, Joe Bidden, Warren Buffett, Uber Technologies Inc., Apple Inc., and Michael Bloomberg. The list was also populated by the official Twitter accounts of Bitcoin.com and Bitfinex.
The principle of operation of the hacker attack included a Twitter post by the victim, stating that the victim will double the amount that users donate to a provided Bitcoin wallet address in the next 30 minutes.
Twitter officials stated that attacks of such large scale were well-coordinated social engineering interventions, aimed at Twitter employees with access to internal tools and systems of the company. The social media giant further explained that “by exploiting this access, the hackers took control of many highly-visible (including verified) accounts and Tweeted on their behalf." Twitter also noted that the company is taking serious measures to limit access to its internal systems, while the investigation remains as ongoing.
Twitter’s CEO Jack Dorsey also made a short statement on the social media, stating that "It’s a tough day for us at Twitter. We all feel terrible this happened." Dorsey and his team took some extreme measures in order to cope with the situation. Some of the measures included stopping many verified Twitter user accounts from posting, as well as forbidding password reset requests, which can be used to highjack user accounts.
Dr. Alexi Drew from King’s College in London, however, noted that such an attack would have inflicted much more damage if it was planned during times of crisis.
Other crypto exchanges also took a hit, with Coinbase and Gemini reportedly having their Twitter login emails changed. The organization, which was falsely claimed to be responsible for the attack, is CryptoForHealth, which website was taken down moments after the attack.
The amount of cash collected by hackers equals to $118,000, collected in just three hours. Crypto analytics company Blockchair published a timeline, outlining the start and end phase of the attack. It seems that the first VIP user whose account was attacked was Elon Musk`s, followed by Bill Gates, Uber and Apple.
Source: Blockchair.io
submitted by Crypto_Browser to CryptoBrowser_EN [link] [comments]

As awareness is increasing for Quant after recent announcements, here is an overview and links to find more info about this fantastic project

As awareness is increasing for Quant after recent announcements, here is an overview and links to find more info about this fantastic project
1/ As awareness is increasing for @quant_network after recent announcements I encourage everyone to see the thread below providing more details around the project. Excellent Team, Tech, Use cases, Tokenomics, Partners has it all.

https://preview.redd.it/gbm8yhtbvz751.png?width=1345&format=png&auto=webp&s=1eb8953930cf676aa3caefa2ea94a9ac1c877723
2/ Quant’s Overledger Blockchain Operating System not only provides interoperability between all the leading Enterprise and Public Blockchains but also connecting the world’s networks to blockchain with just 3 lines of code.

https://preview.redd.it/9kmidjenqz751.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=ebac8c6534ec601394fc995143284b57d6137232
3/ Unlike other solutions, Overledger solves interoperability at scale without the overhead/bottleneck/single point of failure of adding another blockchain in the middle, nor does it impose restrictions / require blockchains to fork their code to connect.
https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/what-is-a-blockchain-operating-system-and-what-are-the-benefits-c561d8275de6
4/ Overledger is not a blockchain itself, but an OS that runs on top of multiple blockchains, providing a platform to build and use multi chain applications and abstracts all of the complexities involved with integrating with all the different blockchains
https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/blockchain-operating-system-learning-from-the-past-to-build-a-better-future-92142c823d30
5/ #Interoperability is more than just Blockchain-to-Blockchain. True Interoperability is Any-to-Any.@quant_network are launching a universal connector for Overledger which allows for any API to connect to any Blockchain through Overledger.
https://preview.redd.it/0tax2hqsqz751.png?width=806&format=png&auto=webp&s=397bc6416262978bf5e59d67e9d5074032d86e55
6/ This will mean APIs like IFTTT/ZapiePayment APIs/Banking APIs/IoT APIs etc can now seamlessly interoperate with Blockchains through Overledger. You can integrate pretty much any tech and API into Overledger
https://preview.redd.it/gg4lrycuqz751.png?width=1199&format=png&auto=webp&s=23a344e7086c63d1d4b269cae989bb1b2c577a28
7/ Quant's approach is superior, enabling scalable interoperability, can connect any blockchain / existing network, future proof and without imposing limitations / requiring connected chains to fork their code
See https://twitter.com/CryptoSeq/status/1270237869043572737
and this article https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/quant-networks-overledger-part-two-the-layers-of-overledger-ea23a7148af1
8/ Every Blockchain has their own advantages and disadvantages. Why compromise on one platform when with Multi-chain Applications (MAPPs) you can combine the best features from multiple? Why have the risk and limitations of Vendor Lock in?
9/ Only Overledger enables Treaty Contracts, where you can deploy, query and execute multi-chain smart contracts. Bridge and extend smart contracts across multiple blockchains.
10/ Overledger Network is due to launch in a few days and is a Network of Networks, which allows enterprise and communities stakeholders to access and participate in a growing hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem
https://preview.redd.it/u8l4yoh6rz751.png?width=679&format=png&auto=webp&s=a3d7618dd2e86e8bb1944d9da5224b75652e04c4
11/ Enterprises, banks, central banks, trading venues, etc will be able to host their own secure dedicated gateways, enabling secure connectivity to permissioned networks, permissionless networks, ecosystems, consortia and other distributed technologies.
https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/the-network-of-networks-scalable-interoperability-to-unleash-the-true-potential-of-blockchain-c54e7d373d2d
12/ Community members will also be able to run an Overledger gateway to further enhance the scalability, decentralisation and optimise network latency, providing enterprises, developers and users choice to use the closest gateway when accessing permissionless blockchains.
13/ The Overledger gateways will create a scalable p2p network that shares the transaction and volume between participants and chooses the closest or largest node to transact with
https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/how-the-overledger-network-community-treasury-powers-the-network-of-networks-b716b01d8284
14/ Quant will be open sourcing the connectors so that anyone can connect their favourite blockchain to Overledger Network and benefit from increased adoption from the Enterprises, Developers and users of all the existing connected blockchains / networks.
15/ Partners: Quant have partnered with SIA, the leading financial network provider in Europe and both companies are confident that this development will play an integral part in building the financial infrastructure of the future globally
https://www.sia.eu/en/media-events/news-press-releases/quant-network-and-sia-successfully-tested-blockchain-interoperability
16/ SIA provide a private financial network which is the backbone of the European financial market. SIA and SWIFT are the only 2 providers for the Eurosystem Single Market Infrastructure Gateway, granting access to all RTGS, Securities and Instant Payment transactions for Europe.
17/ Overledger is integrated into SIAChain part of that private financial network (SIAnet) that is the backbone of the european financial market, enabling the 580 banks, central banks, trading venues that are building projects on SIAChain to benefit from scalable Interoperability
18/ Some of the largest blockcain projects in the world are being launched on SIAChain, one of those is the Spunta project.
Spunta is a huge project consisting of the entire italian banking system and looks to further expand into europe
https://www.r3.com/videos/italian-banking-association-and-r3/
19/ Another project building on SIAChain is Fideiussioni Digitali, a digital sureties project with the Bank of Italy sia.eu/en/media-event… as well as potential trial platform for digital euro
To read more about the partnership with SIA is a game changer
https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/quant-network-partner-with-sia-a-game-changer-for-mass-blockchain-adoption-by-financial-9059ab411069
20/ Quant have partnered with Oracle (the 2nd largest Software provider in the world) as a Fintech Partner to deliver financial services infrastructure.
Quant are enabling #interoperability of DLTs to deliver mission-critical business applications and workloads for FS clients.
https://preview.redd.it/xmf4xk8irz751.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=ccb0a86346deea037f439e3bfc968f50f9128f9b
https://preview.redd.it/p7uizctirz751.png?width=1012&format=png&auto=webp&s=331bf12514d557e1f4793b62eb6af27ef24f1d53
21/ Oracle invited Quant to attend the leading financial event of the year - SWIFT SIBOS where Oracle were co-marketing with Quant to take their solution to their 480,000 clients including meetings with Banks / Central Banks
https://preview.redd.it/78uvr1qkrz751.png?width=770&format=png&auto=webp&s=2a3c4b609041f8fdbd4e100c6866ca52a69214fe
22/ Another fantastic partnership is with @SimbaChain. It is a smart-contract-as-a-service (SCaaS) platform, enabling users across a variety of skill sets to implement dapps. They are developing on Overledger to allow them to deploy DAPPs across multiple connected blockchains.
23/ SIMBA Chain have recently been awarded a $9.5 million contract with the US Navy, they are also working with the US Air Force. They have a thriving ecosystem with over 2300 Organizations and 1150+ Applications developed.
https://cointelegraph.com/news/us-navy-bets-95m-on-blockchain-to-keep-messaging-secret
24/ Quant are working with clients in the Capital Market space such as AX Trading to bring more digital assets, securities and tokenised assets to their existing 800 institutional traders in an already live and connected FINRA and SEC regulated exchange.
https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/wall-street-2-0-17252ffd8919
25/ @quant_network's Interchange enables FIAT to be representing on a blockchain enabling Delivery vs Payment across multiple blockchains with cross chain atomic swaps as well as integrating into existing payment rails such as Faster Payments, CHAPS, SEPA, SWIFT, PAY UK
https://preview.redd.it/ysnwozbprz751.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=11fed83c8e99c4e9d5db55f84da95607296bf9cc
https://preview.redd.it/0xxkr52qrz751.png?width=924&format=png&auto=webp&s=54dab97f9128a9fc92352fd223fec1fa093b663e
26/ Enormous traditional exchanges like Fidelity, SIX, Nasdaq, Deutsche Borse will soon be entering the space, offering Digital Assets that are traded today on Crypto exchanges as well as tokenising Stocks, bringing in enormous amounts of investment from institutional investors.
27/ Quant were made a guarantor of Pay.uk - the UK’s largest payment network. Through this relationship, Quant will shape the payment ecosystem and help set the strategic direction of the Payments infrastructure and adopting the New Payments Architecture (NPA).
https://preview.redd.it/obzmq90trz751.png?width=770&format=png&auto=webp&s=a219a30246b644a9c38e0205b5eb2426cbbb6d8b
28/ Quant have also partnered with AUCloud and UKCloud to provide highly secure and interoperable Blockchain-as-a-Service for Australian Government and Defence and the critical national industries and supply chains that serve the nation.
https://www.quant.network/blog/quant-network-and-aucloud-partner-to-provide-worlds-first-blockchain-operating-system-for-government-and-critical-national-industries
29/ And others such Crowdz a leading blockchain-based trade finance company who are partnered with Barclaycard and recently received $5.5 million Series A Investment from Barclays Bank and others
As well as being a member of Hyperledger, MOBI and more
https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/large-enterprise-adoption-of-blockchain-is-happening-enabled-by-quant-networks-overledger-32321b650115
30/ The Team: Gilbert Verdian the CEO - his CV speaks for itself. Before starting Quant he was the Chief Information Security Officer for Vocalink (Mastercard) and was in charge of security for the entire payments in the UK managing £6 Trillion per year
https://www.gilbertverdian.com/cv/
31/ Martin Hargreaves recently joined as Chief Product Officer. He has 12 years experience at Vocalink and was the Vice President of Product. Vocalink (Mastercard) manage the entire payments system for the UK as well as other payment networks in the US, Singapore
https://preview.redd.it/ko5sxwbyrz751.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=a098d33d7fb48a8354c508b43dbf7e2bfc65c56c
32/ Guy Dietrich the managing director of Rockefeller Capital (who manage assets worth over $30 billion) joined the board of directors and has attended meetings personally with Gilbert such as with the Financial Conduct Authority in the UK
https://preview.redd.it/ovmrhejzrz751.png?width=619&format=png&auto=webp&s=065a65e6515e34d3194b0d3e3c5caa933d589283
33/ Gilbert founded ISO TC 307, the globally recognized standard which has 57 countries working towards. This is vitally important for Enterprise / Government adoption and designed from the start to adhere to those rather than have to redesign it later.
https://preview.redd.it/a79wp7o0sz751.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=0d5e4c787f19bc383aa733e53033c01f331e5a3a
34/ Not only do they have enormous meaningful partnerships, advanced tech that's solving a problem which is very much needed and an excellent team, they also have the best tokenomics i have seen in a project and is integral to everything.
https://preview.redd.it/vu853iycvz751.png?width=1345&format=png&auto=webp&s=3625ebb93975954ed273ab29e01ee29f80ecca8a
35/ Hedge against Inflation - has a total supply of just 14.6 million, no inflation, no new tokens minted and no huge % of tokens controlled by the team waiting to be released. Circulating supply is 12 Million which will reduce over time with QNT being locked up for licenses
36/ Whether it's #Bitcoin, Stable Coins, #DeFi, Central Bank Digital Currencies that come out on top or a combination of all, @quant_network is working with them all, connecting , , and working with multiple Central Banks all leading to more demand / usage of
37/ @Overledger has been designed to be future proof by not being a blockchain itself and performing #interoperability at a layer above, learning from what made TCP/IP so dominant after 40+ years. Whether it be Blockchain 1.0, 2.0, 3.0.. it doesnt matter,$QNT can connect them all
38/ Whether it be Permissioned or Permissionless Blockchains, @Overledger can connect them all. Currently $BTC, $ETH, $XRP(L), $EOS, $XLM, $IOTA, $DAG, #Corda, #Hyperledger, #Qurorum. $QNT is one of very few tokens that are needed even in a Permissioned Enterprise environment.
39/ Sustainable Business Model - Earning revenue (on track for $10 million last year), moving into an office twice the size in the UK and currently hiring 6 additional employees and expanding to other parts of the world despite the uncertainty many are facing.
40/ is needed for licenses, consumption fees, gateways (staking for higher throughput), signing of messages on #Overledger, minimum holdings of QNT.will be locked up reducing circulating supply so not just bought then immediately sold and needed by all inc enterprises
41/ Provides what all projects need - true scalable #interoperability not just between blockchains but legacy systems as well. With no added overhead of an additional consensus mechanism, doesn't impose restrictions or require connected chains to fork their code. Anybody can join
https://preview.redd.it/16pdtu59sz751.png?width=679&format=png&auto=webp&s=064d031b5d24760511b15b4c2b6a78cf9ac5ec89
43/ For Tokenomics see @quant_network's Utility Paper https://bit.ly/2xc25mA and @DavidW___'s article https://medium.com/@davW/a-deeper-look-into-the-quant-network-utility-token-qnt-valuation-dynamics-and-fundamentals-84633ca7cb58
https://twitter.com/CryptoSeq/status/1277555274405068801
https://threadreaderapp.com/thread/1277555274405068801.html


submitted by xSeq22x to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

An analysis on Penguin Magic user reviews

Hello,
To practise some programming, I made an analysis of the user reviews left on penguin magic. I thought you could be interested in some of the results. It made me check a lot of products that I did not know about.
I excluded the reviews for expos and gift cards to analyse only physical items and tricks. I investigated only the items with at least one review. I combined items as Penguin did. This left me with 87761 reviews for 11318 items.
50 Most Reviewed Items
Item Rating Review Count
Born to Perform Card Magic by Oz Pearlman 4.87 556
Invisible Deck 4.70 506
Self Tying Shoelace by Jay Noblezada 4.74 373
Melt 2.0 by Matthew Johnson 4.65 348
Marked Cards 4.67 344
The Stealth Pen presented by Rick Lax 4.73 327
Coffee Break by Gregory Wilson David Gripenwaldt 4.65 320
Torched and Restored by Brent Braun 4.83 252
All Seeing Eye by Dan Harlan 4.75 244
The Poker Test 2.0 by Erik Casey 4.44 236
Binary Code by Rick Lax 4.78 236
The End by Rick Lax 4.64 225
Starcle by Dan Harlan 4.85 220
OneTrix by Mario Lopez 4.50 214
Close-Up Illusion by Larry Jennings presented by Michael Ammar 4.70 206
Hummes Whirling Card 4.36 195
Two Dollar Window by Jay Noblezada 4.80 191
GREED Starring Daniel Garcia 4.54 190
Modern Transportation by David Regal 4.88 187
Vuja De by Rick Lax 4.78 181
DRESSCODE by Calen Morelli 4.75 181
Predixion by Max Maven 4.89 178
Color Monte 4.87 173
The Secrets of Magic by Rick Lax 4.67 173
In the Beginning There Were Coins Starring Jay Noblezada 4.76 170
Panic by Aaron Fisher 4.77 168
Or Not by Dani DaOrtiz 4.74 165
Bicycle Elite Edition Playing Cards 4.72 165
Super Soft Deluxe Nest of Wallets 2.0 by Nick Einhorn and Alan Wong 4.66 162
Tornado by Justin Flom and Rick Lax 4.82 161
BWave DELUXE by Max Maven 4.84 160
Bently by Chris Hanowell 3.60 159
Binary Code 2 by Rick Lax 4.88 159
Copycat by David Parr 4.88 157
BITCOIN by Rick Lax 4.57 157
Muldoon Match by Paul Gordon 4.77 156
ID7 by Rick Lax 4.37 155
Monkey in the Middle by Bill Goldman presented by Magick Balay 4.76 154
Little Door by Roddy McGhie 4.61 153
SPONGE Starring Jay Noblezada 4.80 152
Eclipse by Dave Loosley 4.60 152
Peter Turner LIVE 4.52 152
Position Impossible by Brent Braun 4.83 150
Clutch by Oz Pearlman 4.67 144
Zoltar by Shaun Dunn presented by Lewis Le Val 4.38 144
BANDIT by Darryl Davis & Daryl Williams (a.k.a. The Other Brothers) 4.80 144
The Known by Thom Peterson 4.47 143
The Ultimate Three Domino Monte 4.14 143
Psypher PRO by Robert Smith 4.73 142
Mnemonica Trainer by Rick Lax 4.81 141
25 5 Star (5*) Items
There are a lot of (3245 to be precise) items that received only perfect 5* reviews. But of course, that could be only one reviewer giving 5* and that would not mean a lot. The following table shows most reviewed yet still rated 5* items.
Item Rating Review Count
Diamond Jim Tyler LIVE 5.00 73
Carisa Hendrix LIVE ACTS 5.00 52
David Corsaro LIVE 5.00 30
Halloween by Natalia Silva 5.00 29
Howard Hamburg LIVE 5.00 25
Daniel Chard LIVE ACT 5.00 22
Sibyl by Phedon Bilek 5.00 21
Ian Rowland LIVE ACT 5.00 16
John (Fast Jack) Farrell LIVE 5.00 16
Morgan and West LIVE 5.00 16
Red Pill by Chris Ramsay 5.00 16
Jay Noblezada presents HTG LIVE: Hypnosis Training Group 5.00 16
NX11 :: The Noblezada Experience 5.00 16
QA Masterclass by Bob Cassidy 5.00 16
Takamiz Usui LIVE 5.00 15
Venom Cube by Henry Harrius 5.00 15
Move Zero (Vol 1) by John Bannon and Big Blind Media 5.00 15
Tom Wright LIVE 5.00 15
TC Tahoe LIVE 5.00 15
Jonathan Pendragon LIVE 5.00 15
Jan Forster LIVE ACT 5.00 14
13 Steps To Mentalism (6 DVDs) by Richard Osterlind 5.00 14
Jermays Mind (DVD Set) by Luke Jermay 5.00 14
Phoenix Deck 5.00 14
Tarbell 77: X-Ray Eyes and Blindfold Effects 5.00 14
50 Top Rated Items
I'll list the top-rated items. I'll include only the items that have at least 20 reviews. (This leaves us with 995 items to order).
Item Rating Review Count
Diamond Jim Tyler LIVE 5.00 73
Carisa Hendrix LIVE ACTS 5.00 52
David Corsaro LIVE 5.00 30
Halloween by Natalia Silva 5.00 29
Howard Hamburg LIVE 5.00 25
Daniel Chard LIVE ACT 5.00 22
Sibyl by Phedon Bilek 5.00 21
Diamond Jim Tyler LIVE 2 4.98 56
David Williamson LIVE 4.98 109
Drew Backenstoss LIVE ACT 4.98 83
Jay Scott Berry LIVE 4.97 37
David Hira LIVE 4.97 67
Toibox Card To Box System by Jonathan Kamm 4.97 133
Jason England LIVE 4.97 33
Dyno by Joe Rindfleisch 4.96 27
Paul Gordon LIVE 4.96 27
Roberto Giobbi LIVE 4.96 25
SvenPad® Minis Black Cover Pair 4.96 24
Mark Mason LIVE 4.96 23
Marc Paul LIVE ACT 4.96 23
Joshua Jay LIVE 4.96 23
Brent Braun LIVE 4.95 22
Seth Kramer LIVE ACT 4.95 21
Robert Temple LIVE 4.95 20
Bandwidth by Greg Wilson 4.95 37
Stegosaurus by Phill Smith 4.94 49
TRIUMPH Starring Oz Pearlman 4.94 31
Banachek LIVE 4.93 59
Fiber Optics Extended by Richard Sanders 4.93 29
Name and Place by Bob Cassidy 4.93 71
The Special Assortment Deck 4.93 28
Cody Fisher LIVE ACT 4.92 26
Blank Face Bicycle Deck 4.92 26
Richard Osterlind LIVE 2: Pocket Mentalism 4.92 38
Scratch by Chad Long 4.92 24
Caught Red-Handed by Michael Mode & Arthur Ottney 4.92 24
Modern Coin Magic by J.B. Bobo 4.91 46
Dave Loosley LIVE 4.91 23
Mark James LIVE 4.91 22
Strong Magic by Darwin Ortiz 4.91 22
Acrobatic Knot (with DVD) by Daryl 4.91 22
DMC ELITES : ROUGE marked deck 4.91 22
Shin Lim LIVE: Visual Magic. 4.90 21
Tornado REFILL 4.90 31
CLEAR CHOICE by Thinking Paradox 4.90 81
Choose Five for 99 4.90 79
True Triumph by Paul Cummins 4.90 29
Eugene Burger LIVE 4.89 57
Predixion by Max Maven 4.89 178
Bill Malone LIVE 4.89 36
25 Least Liked Items
Following table shows the 25 items that have the worst ratings and at least 10 reviews.
Item Rating Review Count
Phantom by Peter Eggink 1.44 16
RETRIEVE (Gimmick and Online Instructions) by Smagic Productions 1.56 16
Penciltration by Jesse Feinberg 1.70 10
Force of Will by Dave Hooper - DVD 1.71 17
Phone Phreak by Jeff Prace & Paul Harris 1.81 16
PK Coin by Nathan Kranzo 2.11 28
POST_NOTE By Antonio Smith-Plata 2.24 17
Never There by Morgan Strebler - DVD 2.29 14
Spirit by Arnel Renegado 2.33 12
The Gecko by Jim Rosenbaum 2.39 36
The Incredible Shrinking Finger by Dan Hauss (Additional handling by Paul Harris) 2.40 10
The Wizards Flip Book 2.41 17
Phone-omenon by Doug McKenzie 2.44 16
Elevator by Peter Loughran 2.47 15
BLAZE by Thinking Paradox 2.53 19
Ambitious Finger by Mario Lopez 2.53 53
Absolute Zero (Gimmick and Online Instructions) by SansMinds 2.53 15
Cheese Smile by Smagic Productions 2.55 11
Liquid Metal 2 by Morgan Strebler 2.57 14
Sealed by Menny Lindenfeld 2.57 61
GREEN FACES by Dalton Wayne 2.58 12
Ice Cold: Propless Mentalism (2 DVD Set) Limited Edition by Morgan Strebler and SansMinds - DVD 2.58 12
Nathan Kranzo LIVE 3 2.60 10
Jay Sankeys ORIGINAL Wrap It Up! (Trick Only) 2.62 21
Sharp This by Vanishing Inc 2.64 11
30 Most Controversial Items
I tried to measure controversiality with a ranking system. If all the reviewers gave the same rating for an item, then the controversiality is calculated as 0%. And the most divided option, where half of the reviewers rate an item 1* while the other half reviews it 5*, is rated as 100% controversiality. Here are the most controversial items with at least 10 reviews:

Item Rating Review Count Controversiality %
HACAAN 3.07 27 92.46
Chris Mayhew LIVE 2.94 16 90.63
Sharp This by Vanishing Inc 2.64 11 89.26
Justin Miller LIVE 3.05 22 88.64
CARD IN THE KEYCHAIN by Stefano Curci 3.20 10 88.00
Cut 2.0 LIMITED by Ran Pink 2.88 16 86.72
P'INK by Ran Pink 2.88 82 84.62
Ice Cold: Propless Mentalism (2 DVD Set) Limited Edition by Morgan Strebler and SansMinds - DVD 2.58 12 84.03
Winner's Dice (Gimmicks and Online Instructions) by Secret Factory 3.38 13 84.02
Stained Glass by Adam Grace 3.10 10 84.00
Joe Monti LIVE 3.36 14 82.14
Elevator by Peter Loughran 2.47 15 81.33
Strongman by Jimmy Strange 2.88 16 81.25
GREEN FACES by Dalton Wayne 2.58 12 80.56
iMove by Oliver Smith 2.67 12 80.56
Jay Sankey's GEMINI POUCH (Trick Only) 3.45 11 80.17
Nathan Kranzo LIVE 3 2.60 10 80.00
Titan's Finger by Titanas 3.63 16 79.69
vACAANt by Area52 3.42 24 78.13
Triple C (Red Gimmicks and Online Instructions) by Christian Engblom 3.70 10 78.00
The Switch by Shin Lim 3.67 18 77.78
Memoria by Luke Jermay (Instant Download) 3.64 11 77.69
Rudy Hunter's Total Control with Cards 3.77 13 77.51
Phone-omenon by Doug McKenzie 2.44 16 77.34
SansMinds Sharpie (DVD and Gimmick) by Will Tsai 3.00 13 76.92
Derren Brown LIVE 2.74 105 76.87
Hidden Hand by Sean Fields 2.84 51 76.62
Harlan's No Tape, No Glue, No Scissors, 20-second Setup Torn & Restored Newspaper 2.76 17 75.78
Darryl Vanamburg's "Black Widow" 3.77 13 75.74
Absolute Zero (Gimmick and Online Instructions) by SansMinds 2.53 15 75.56
submitted by VolkanOzcan to Magic [link] [comments]

Bitcoin to 6k!? Why? China Wants Control of BTC!! Bitcoins Erklärung: In nur 12 Min. Bitcoin verstehen ... Why You Should Put All of Your Money in Bitcoin (Funny ... Bitcoin + Privacy - Best Practices For Beginners! The

Chaumian CoinJoin mixers, for instance, see groups of users send the same amount of BTC to a new Bitcoin address that they control and then merge all of the individual transactions into one main transaction. Users then take the same amount of BTC they originally sent back out, and now they have effectively obscured the previous activity of their bitcoin. Other services charge fees that are ... A major tech firm is about to start using JPM Coin in global payments, as the investment bank doubles down on its blockchain business. Markets. Bitcoin Hits 16-Month High Despite Sell-Off in ... We make Bitcoin Cash (BCH) and Bitcoin (BTC) more accessible. You can buy, use, and store Bitcoin securely, monitor Crypto market prices and Bitcoin news, and even earn Bitcoin through mining. We also help businesses accept Bitcoin payments and support developers building on Bitcoin. About Bitcoin.com. We’re working to make money better—for everyone. Whether it’s your paycheck, pension ... What is Bitcoin Core's "Coin Control Features"? How do I use it, and what can I do with it? bitcoin-core coin-selection coin-control. share improve this question follow edited Aug 3 '16 at 8:17. Murch ♦ 46.4k 30 30 gold badges 136 136 silver badges 407 407 bronze badges. asked May 20 '15 at 19:17. Geremia Geremia. 3,795 2 2 gold badges 29 29 silver badges 67 67 bronze badges. add a ... It started with a ban on “initial coin offerings,” followed by a shutdown of local bitcoin exchanges. China’s authorities have clamped down on bitcoin trading before, most notably in 2014 ...

[index] [12424] [34402] [44858] [48472] [43689] [15011] [13196] [12873] [12053] [1264]

Bitcoin to 6k!? Why? China Wants Control of BTC!!

However Bitcoin's privacy still has room for improvement. This was even noted by Satoshi in the white-paper. So in this video we'll touch on 6 specific topics for how you can practice privacy ... Hello everyone, Today's video is about how to mine Bitcoins using Android. Hope you folks enjoy :) Mine Litecoins using Android Phone :https://youtu.be/-tFjx... Bitcoin begins its downwards tumble back to the $6k levels. Angelo BTC and his Bitcoin 6k prophecy is looking more like a reality day by day. Fundamentally why will this happen? CHINA! China wants ... Start trading Bitcoin and cryptocurrency here: http://bit.ly/2Vptr2X Bitcoin is the first decentralized digital currency. All Bitcoin transactions are docume... Bitcoin für Anfänger einfach erklärt! [auf Deutsch] Bitcoin-Börse (erhalte 10€ in BTC) https://finanzfluss.de/go/bitcoin-boerse *📱 Sicheres Bitcoin-Wallet...

#