|icoBoard||Lattice||iCE40-HX8K||7,680||$100||Sort of||A very simple FPGA development board that plugs into a Raspberry Pi, so you have a "backup" hard-core CPU that can control networking, etc. Supports a huge range of pmod accessories. You can write a program/circuit so that the Raspberry Pi CPU and the FPGA work together, similar to a SoC. Proprietary bitstream is fully reverse engineered and supported by Project IceStorm, and there is an open-source toolchain that can compile your hardware design to bitstream. Has everything you need to start experimenting with FPGAs.|
|iCE40-HX8K Breakout Board||Lattice||iCE40-HX8K-CT256||7,680||$49||No||8 LEDs, 8 switches. Very similar to icoBoard, but no Raspberry Pi or pmod accessories.|
|iCE40 UltraPlus||Lattice||iCE40 UltraPlus FPGA||5280||$99||No||Chip specs. 4 switchable FPGAs, and a rechargeable battery. Bluetooth module, LCD Display (240 x 240 RGB), RGB LED, microphones, audio output, compass, pressure, gyro, accelerometer.|
|Go Board||Lattice||ICE40 HX1K FPGA||1280||$65||No||4 LEDs, 4 buttons, Dual 7-Segment LED Display, VGA, 25 MHz on-board clock, 1 Mb Flash.|
|snickerdoodle||Xilinx||Zynq 7010||28K||$95||Yes||Xilinx Zynq 7-Series SoC - ARM Cortex-A9 processor, and Artix-7 FPGA. 125 IO pins. 1GB DDR2 RAM. Texas Instruments WiLink 8 wireless module for 802.11n Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 4.1. No LEDs or buttons, but easy to wire up your own on a breadboard. If you want to use a baseboard, you'll need a snickerdoodle black ($195) with the pins in the "down" orientation. (E.g. The "breakyBreaky breakout board" ($49) or piSmasher SBC ($195)). The snickerdoodle one only comes with pins in the "up" orientation and doesn't support any baseboards. But you can still plug the jumpers into the pins and wire up things on a breadboard.|
|numato Mimas A7||Xilinx||Artix 7||52K||$149||No||2Gb DDR3 RAM. Gigabit Ethernet. HDMI IN/OUT. 100MHz LVDS oscillator. 80 IOs. 7-segment display, LEDs, buttons. (Found in this Reddit thread.)|
|Ultra96||Xilinx||Zynq UltraScale+ ZU3EG||154K||$249||Yes||Has one of the latest Xilinx SoCs. 2 GB (512M x32) LPDDR4 Memory. Wi-Fi / Bluetooth. Mini DisplayPort. 1x USB 3.0 type Micro-B, 2x USB 3.0 Type A. Audio I/O. Four user-controllable LEDs. No buttons and limited LEDs, but easy to wire up your own on a breadboard|
|Nexys A7-100T||Xilinx||Artix 7||15,850||$265||No||. 128MiB DDR2 RAM. Ethernet port, PWM audio output, accelerometer, PDM microphone, microphone, etc. 16 switches, 16 LEDs. 7 segment displays. USB HID Host for mice, keyboards and memory sticks.|
|Zybo Z7-10||Xilinx||Zynq 7010||17,600||$199||Yes||Xilinx Zynq 7000 SoC (ARM Cortex-A9, 7-series FPGA.) 1 GB DDR3 RAM. A few switches, push buttons, and LEDs. USB and Ethernet. Audio in/out ports. HDMI source + sink with CEC. 8 Total Processor I/O, 40 Total FPGA I/O. Also a faster version for $299 (Zybo Z7-20).|
|Arty A7||Xilinx||Artix 7||15K||$119||No||256MB DDR3L. 10/100 Mbps Ethernet. A few switches, buttons, LEDs.|
|DE10-Standard (specs)||Altera||Cyclone V||110K||$350||Yes||Dual-core Cortex-A9 processor. Lots of buttons, LEDs, and other peripherals.|
|DE10-Nano||Altera||Cyclone V||110K||$130||Yes||Same as DE10-Standard, but not as many peripherals, buttons, LEDs, etc.|
Note: I've changed my mind several times as I learned new things. Here's some of my previous thoughts.
submitted by Godballz to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]
Full article found here:
Summary of article below:
Activity: 364 Merit: 1997 View Profile
Re: BitDNS and Generalizing Bitcoin
December 09, 2010, 09:02:42 PM
Merited by Traxo (1)
I think it would be possible for BitDNS to be a completely separate network and separate block chain, yet share CPU power with Bitcoin. The only overlap is to make it so miners can search for proof-of-work for both networks simultaneously.
The networks wouldn't need any coordination. Miners would subscribe to both networks in parallel. They would scan SHA such that if they get a hit, they potentially solve both at once. A solution may be for just one of the networks if one network has a lower difficulty.
I think an external miner could call getwork on both programs and combine the work. Maybe call Bitcoin, get work from it, hand it to BitDNS getwork to combine into a combined work.
Instead of fragmentation, networks share and augment each other's total CPU power. This would solve the problem that if there are multiple networks, they are a danger to each other if the available CPU power gangs up on one. Instead, all networks in the world would share combined CPU power, increasing the total strength. It would make it easier for small networks to get started by tapping into a ready base of miners.
These were the anonymously written, prophetic words of Satoshi Nakimoto, posted to bitcointalk nearly a decade ago and yet they describe a concept that today we are only truly realizing. What Satoshi describes is not only an elegant solution to many of today's cryptocurrency shortcomings but if implemented properly, could form the backbone for an entire crypto-economy of secure, scalable, and self sufficient chains, outside of the flawed one we currently have.
This new crypto-economy would need to be backed by a secure chain itself with immunity to 51% attacks and powerful cutting edge technological features supporting anonymity and protection of assets to pass on down to the interconnected chains.
One such cutting edge project is Verus Coin (https://veruscoin.io/).
The lead Technical Developer of Verus is a former VP at Microsoft who also co-founded Microsoft’s Java and .NET platforms.
Verus has a unique, new consensus algorithm called Proof of Power, a 50% PoW/50% PoS algorithm that solves theoretical weaknesses in other PoS systems (Nothing at Stake problem for example) and is provably immune to 51% hash attacks. Verus utilizes zk-snarks tech zero-knowledge proofs and is not "forced private", allowing for both transparent and shielded (private) transactions along with private messages as well. They created their very own hardware equalizing algorithm VerusHash 2.0, that leverages the many hardware advantages intrinsic to modern CPU's architecture, enabling the most decentralizing hardware, CPUs (due to their virtually complete market penetration), to stay relevant as miners for the indefinite future. VerusHash 2.0 is specifically designed to better equalize hashrates across all mining hardware types, allowing CPUs and FPGAs to mine competitively on the same network and by favoring the latest CPUs over older types, has the additional benefit of being a defense against the centralizing potential of botnets.
Verus and the Verus Coin project are community driven, all open source (https://github.com/VerusCoin/VerusCoin) and they are also now currently running a test net of their all new protocol, PBaaS (Public Blockchain as a Service) with merged mining of up to 15 (including Verus) fully independent, secure, scalable chains that all share the properties of the parent chain described above. Check out their Discord to give merged mining a try for yourself.
I do know that merged mining as a concept has been around for a while. There are even some implementations out there too, but not on the scale of what Verus is doing. They are creating an ecosystem fully interconnected and yet independent blockchains that scale and because of their implementation (The bottom link on Merkle Mountain Ranges (MMRs)) they will all be able to be exchanged with each other and converted automatically, like a smart exchange without the need for buyers and sellers. What they are doing is truly revolutionary in it's one click chain creation ease and the fact that it is a massive network of chains (just like each of all the coins we have now) but where people can mine up to 15 projects at a time at no additional energy costs and all the created projects are fully protected. I do understand that other projects are doing great things as well and it was not my aim to downplay that but rather to highlight what can come next and fill in the holes left from a first generation blockchain network.
A Peek at the GUI (Graphical User Interface) version of the wallet
A Peek at the CLI (Command Line Interface) version of the wallet (with GUI) courtesy of a community member.
A helpful place for lots of useful information and if you want to learn more, check out their Medium page (https://medium.com/veruscoin)
A rough description of the concepts described above:
-PBaaS: or Public Blockchain as a Service is a revolutionary new take on the blockchain as a service model entirely unique to Verus that offers the tools and necessary means to build on and utilize blockchain technology for business or personal use. It is similar to using a web hosting service to build a website with, but rather than having to build one by yourself from scratch, the service provider supplies the basics and handles all the necessary tasks from general upkeep to infrastructure maintenance. Since Verus doesn't rely on a centralized authority to work, there isn't any one single point of failure in the network, so in the event of a hack, power failure, data breach or loss, Verus' system is immune while the other options aren't. Instead of relying on a centralized system, Verus elegantly does work for the public by utilizing the public to do work.
-Merge Mining: or auxiliary mining is a lesser known cryptographic concept that has been seldom discussed and even less so attempted, but can be found as far back as bitcointalk's earliest days. Unfortunately, development in this area of work has remained largely stagnant due to the numerous difficulties involved in coding it, coupled with the sheer complexity and vast scope involved in the programming work. Fortunately, the development team's years of experience and months of hard work have finally paid off, and now merge mining in it's true form is at last a reality. This means that a miner could find a block for Verus and now hypothetically also earn block rewards for several other projects at the exact same time! With literally nothing to lose, and significantly more to gain, it's a no brainer choice for miners. Now miners who mine for profit can make more with the same energy expenditure, while at the same time still have the option to speculatively mine and hold projects they really believe in or care about. Businesses and individual project creators will benefit too by being able to attach a newly formed project to the hashrate of a larger, more established one. This would provide security and reliability to new projects right away and in their earliest stages, a point where they are most vulnerable. Verus has created the foundation for which any person or business, whether small or large, can safely and easily enter into the blockchain.
A semi-visual descriptive paper on the immense benefits of utilizing Merkle mountain ranges, one of the many technologies implemented in Verus PBaaS- https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2016-May/012715.html
Also, full disclosure for readers or mods, I am also a member of this crypto community among several others and this should not diminish the value of it's content. I wrote this post to highlight a genuine technical achievement in cryptocurrency and if not here, then where do we discuss this?
The lead developer Michael Toutonghi has spent decades in the field programming and is a former Vice President and Technical Fellow at Microsoft, recognized founder and architect of Microsoft's .Net platform, ex-Technical Fellow of Microsoft's advertising platform, ex-CTO, Parallels Corporation, and an experienced distributed computing and machine learning architect. The project he helped create employs and makes use of a diverse myriad of technologies and security features to form one of the most advanced and secure cryptocurrency to date.
What their team has managed to do (in testnet, but open to the public for testing) is truly unique in that they've already built a functional system of fully interconnected blockchains that each are also completely independent from one another and fully scalable, private, secure, and immune to 51% attacks. Public blockchain as a service is their ultimate goal of offering these near infinite, secure blockchains to project creators, mineable for near zero energy and protected from attacks. Secure voting, polling, and identity using the tech are on the not-too-distant horizon.
Even the briefest glance over any of their work and it is easy to see this is not just another bs post. I hope this complies with all the rules. If there is some other place to discuss cryptocurrency and the launch of an all new system within it, please let me know. Things keep getting removed without a word said why. I'm happy to do things the proper way.
Welcome!I would like to warmly welcome everyone to waltonchain
This is an updated, extended community-written post and I will try to update it regularly over time.
As for the phase 1.0 of the project, the team has developed the clothing system integration scheme based on RFID. The application scenarios at phase 1.0 will establish Golden demonstration template
At phase 2.0, our RFID beacon chip will be massproduced and can be used in clothing, B2C retail and logistics.
At phase 3.0, manufacturers will achieve traceable customization of intelligent packaging.
At the project phase 4.0, with the upgrading and iteration of assets information collection hardware and improvement of blockchain data structure, all assets can be registered in Waltonchain in the future.
Please note that before the token swap,
DO NOT transfer your ERC20 WTC tokens to the WTC wallet!!
Waltonchain (HK) Development Co. Ltd. (Head company)Walton Chain Technology Co. Ltd. (Korea)
Silicon (Shenzhen) Electronic Technology Co. Ltd.
Silicon (Xiamen) Electronic Technology Co.Ltd. (RFID Chip Research)
Silicon (Quanzhou) Electronic Technology Co. Ltd.(IoT Intelligent Switch Chip)
Nanjing Sleewa Information Technology Co. Ltd. (Blockchain)
Quanzhou KEDIHENG Electronic Technology Co. Ltd
Xiamen IOT Technology Co. Ltd.
https://preview.redd.it/5r9soz2ltq421.jpg?width=268&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6a89685f735b53ec1573eefe08c8646970de8124submitted by Josephbitcoin to u/Josephbitcoin [link] [comments]
What is Bitcoin?
Bitcoin is an experimental system of transfer and verification of property based on a network of peer to peer without any central authority.
The initial application and the main innovation of the Bitcoin network is a system of digital currency decentralized unit of account is bitcoin.
Bitcoin works with software and a protocol that allows participants to issue bitcoins and manage transactions in a collective and automatic way. As a free Protocol (open source), it also allows interoperability of software and services that use it. As a currency bitcoin is both a medium of payment and a store of value.
Bitcoin is designed to self-regulate. The limited inflation of the Bitcoin system is distributed homogeneously by computing the network power, and will be limited to 21 million divisible units up to the eighth decimal place. The functioning of the Exchange is secured by a general organization that everyone can examine, because everything is public: the basic protocols, cryptographic algorithms, programs making them operational, the data of accounts and discussions of the developers.
The possession of bitcoins is materialized by a sequence of numbers and letters that make up a virtual key allowing the expenditure of bitcoins associated with him on the registry. A person may hold several key compiled in a 'Bitcoin Wallet ', 'Keychain' web, software or hardware which allows access to the network in order to make transactions. Key to check the balance in bitcoins and public keys to receive payments. It contains also (often encrypted way) the private key associated with the public key. These private keys must remain secret, because their owner can spend bitcoins associated with them on the register. All support (keyrings) agrees to maintain the sequence of symbols constituting your keychain: paper, USB, memory stick, etc. With appropriate software, you can manage your assets on your computer or your phone.
Bitcoin on an account, to either a holder of bitcoins in has given you, for example in Exchange for property, either go through an Exchange platform that converts conventional currencies in bitcoins, is earned by participating in the operations of collective control of the currency.
The sources of Bitcoin codes have been released under an open source license MIT which allows to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the software, subject to insert a copyright notice into all copies.
Bitcoin creator, Satoshi Nakamoto
What is the Mining of bitcoin?
Technical details :
During mining, your computer performs cryptographic hashes (two successive SHA256) on what is called a header block. For each new hash, mining software uses a different random number that called Nuncio. According to the content of the block and the nonce value typically used to express the current target. This number is called the difficulty of mining. The difficulty of mining is calculated by comparing how much it is difficult to generate a block compared to the first created block. This means that a difficulty of 70000 is 70000 times more effort that it took to Satoshi Nakamoto to generate the first block. Where mining was much slower and poorly optimized.
The difficulty changes each 2016 blocks. The network tries to assign the difficulty in such a way that global computing power takes exactly 14 days to generate 2016 blocks. That's why the difficulty increases along with the power of the network.
In the beginning, mining with a processor (CPU) was the only way to undermine bitcoins. (GPU) graphics cards have possibly replaced the CPU due to their nature, which allowed an increase between 50 x to 100 x in computing power by using less electricity by megahash compared to a CPU.
Although any modern GPU can be used to make the mining, the brand AMD GPU architecture has proved to be far superior to nVidia to undermine bitcoins and the ATI Radeon HD 5870 card was the most economical for a time.
For a more complete list of graphics cards and their performance, see Wiki Bitcoin: comparison of mining equipment
In the same way that transition CPU to GPU, the world of mining has evolved into the use of the Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) as a mining platform. Although FPGAs did not offer an increase of 50 x to 100 x speed of calculation as the transition from CPU to GPU, they offered a better energy efficiency.
A typical HD/s 600 graphics card consumes about 400w of power, while a typical FPGA device can offer a rate of hash of 826 MH/s to 80w of power consumption, a gain of 5 x more calculations for the same energy power. Since energy efficiency is a key factor in the profitability of mining, it was an important step for the GPU to FPGA migration for many people.
The world of the mining of bitcoin is now migrating to the Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). An ASIC is a chip designed specifically to accomplish a single task. Unlike FPGAs, an ASIC is unable to be reprogrammed for other tasks. An ASIC designed to undermine bitcoins cannot and will not do anything else than to undermine bitcoins.
The stiffness of an ASIC allows us to offer an increase of 100 x computing power while reducing power consumption compared to all other technologies. For example, a classic device to offer 60 GH/s (1 hashes equals 1000 Megahash. 1GH/s = 1000 Mh/s) while consuming 60w of electricity. Compared to the GPU, it is an increase in computing power of 100 x and a reduction of power consumption by a factor of 7.
Unlike the generations of technologies that have preceded the ASIC, ASIC is the "end of the line" when we talk about important technology change. The CPUs have been replaced by the GPUs, themselves replaced by FPGAs that were replaced by ASICs.
There is nothing that can replace the ASICs now or in the immediate future. There will be technological refinements in ASIC products, and improvements in energy efficiency, but nothing that may match increased from 50 x to 100 x the computing power or a 7 x reduction in power consumption compared with the previous technology.
Which means that the energy efficiency of an ASIC device is the only important factor of all product ASIC, since the estimated lifetime of an ASIC device is superior to the entire history of the mining of bitcoin. It is conceivable that a purchased ASIC device today is still in operation in two years if the unit still offers a profitable enough economic to keep power consumption. The profitability of mining is also determined by the value of bitcoin but in all cases, more a device has a good energy efficiency, it is profitable.
There are two ways to make mining: by yourself or as part of a team (a pool). If you are mining for yourself, you must install the Bitcoin software and configure it to JSON-RPC (see: run Bitcoin). The other option is to join a pool. There are multiple available pools. With a pool, the profit generated by any block generated by a member of the team is split between all members of the team. The advantage of joining a team is to increase the frequency and stability of earnings (this is called reduce the variance) but gains will be lower. In the end, you will earn the same amount with the two approaches. Undermine solo allows you to receive earnings huge but very infrequent, while miner with a pool can offer you small stable and steady gains.
Once you have your software configured or that you have joined a pool, the next step is to configure the mining software. The software the most populare for ASIC/FPGA/GPU currently is CGminer or a derivative designed specifically for FPGAS and ASICs, BFGMiner.
If you want a quick overview of mining without install any software, try Bitcoin Plus, a Bitcoin minor running in your browser with your CPU. It is not profitable to make serious mining, but it is a good demonstration of the principle of the mining team.
So it it was a fun era while it lasted, but graphics cards for Bitcoin mining is basically dead. So what replaced graphics cards? Well around 2011, people started to use FPGA or Field Programmable Gate Arrays. That was around the time of the first implementation of Bitcoin mining came out in Verilog. Which is the hardware design language that's ... FPGA Bitcoin Mining. At the foundation of block creation and mining is the calculation of this digital signature. Different cryptocurrencies use different approaches to generate the signature. For the most popular cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, the signature is calculated using a cryptographic hashing function. For those unfamiliar with cryptographic hashes, hashes calculate a fixed-length unique ... Recent hardware developments within the eld of bitcoin mining, most impor-tant of which is the introduction of dedicated ASIC mining chips described in Section 2.3.3, have led to bitcoin mining using CPUs, GPUs and many FPGA-based designs being considered unpro table and wasteful in terms of the energy expended. Bitcoin Mining-Hardware (ASICs) sind hochspezialisierte Computer, die zum Mining von Bitcoins verwendet werden. Die ASIC-Industrie ist komplex und wettbewerbsfähig geworden. Mining-Hardware ist nur noch dort zu finden, wo es billigen Strom gibt. Als Satoshi Bitcoin veröffentlichte, wollte er, dass es auf Computer-CPUs abgebaut wird. Allerdings: Unternehmerische Programmierer erkannten bald ... FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by the customer or designer after manufacturing-hencefield-programmable, it can be tailored to suit a particular task like mining bitcoins, after their manufacturing thus creating ASIC.
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Bitcoin Mining Hardware CPU's: In the beginning, mining with a CPU was the only way to mine bitcoins. Mining this way via the original Satoshi client is how the bitcoin network started. In diesem Video bauen wir zusammen ein güntiges Mining Rig zusammen. Mit Windows Einrichtung. Da es diese Bauteile aus dem Video nicht mehr alle gibt. Habe i... Lancelot FPGA Bitcoin Miner Unboxing Feel free to donate to keep more Tutorials coming: ... FPGA and hardware accelerated trading - Duration: 3:51. Romain Tourneau 9,671 views. 3:51 . Bitcoin ... DE10-Nano FPGA unboxing for Odocrypt mining of DigiByte ... Tom's Hardware 4,797 views. 1:25. Professor Eric Laithwaite: Magnetic River 1975 - Duration: 18:39. Imperial College London Recommended ... I set up a Bitcoin cryptocurrency mining farm in my garage with GPU mining rigs and ASIC miners as well as FPGA miners in my house. I explain how to setup yo...