Bitcoin Virus Removal - Virus Guides

10-16 03:43 - 'Cryptosystem' (self.Bitcoin) by /u/Davincarlo16 removed from /r/Bitcoin within 34-44min

'''
u/Cryptonity_Exchange provide our users with the most ergonomic and performant trading tools. #cryptonity
'''
Cryptosystem
Go1dfish undelete link
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Author: Davincarlo16
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

06-17 07:46 - 'Jesus H Christ you are a blithering idiot who understands nothing of mission critical engineering, the zero-tolerance for error of cryptosystems, or systemic risk. Did we not learn anything from the GFC of how fucked up fina...' by /u/SkyMarshal removed from /r/Bitcoin within 50-55min

'''
Jesus H Christ you are a blithering idiot who understands nothing of mission critical engineering, the zero-tolerance for error of cryptosystems, or systemic risk. Did we not learn anything from the GFC of how fucked up financial systems can get when mismanaged. Do you not see that is also the most important consideration in cryptocurrency engineering? Make stupid blocksize increases, see the whole thing come crashing down a few years later, why can't you people grasp that. And most users don't understand the tradeoffs and don't know what the fuck they want until you show them anyway, they can be safely ignored. Core has far deeper insights on the matter than anyone else, having actually built the damn thing. Go back to your Classic playpen shilling for startups whose business models depend on no fees and let the adults in Core change the world please.
'''
Context Link
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: SkyMarshal
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

Algorand [ALGO] vs Cardano [ADA] - Difference, Partnerships & Ecosystem - Which is Better?

Algorand [ALGO] vs Cardano [ADA] - Difference, Partnerships & Ecosystem - Which is Better?

https://preview.redd.it/pdt01cdmj9551.png?width=1240&format=png&auto=webp&s=50e6d140a68eb2f3a3380175c2869c415b5014da

Introduction

The ‘Trilemma’ of Blockchain space - Scalability, Security, and Decentralization - are the three things every blockchain is trying to solve simultaneously. But it’s easier said than done, as proven by the scalability issue faced by Ethereum. Higher scalability transcends to higher market adoption.
This is where Cardano and Algorand have come into the picture. They have their similarities and differences that seem to work for them for now. Rather than telling you which one has more potential, it’s better to present the entire case and let you decide how they fare against each other.

Star Player of the Team

Anyone would agree that having a renowned and accomplished team player always gives a boost to the project.

Cardano’s Charles Hoskinson

If the name seems familiar, that’s because he is also the co-founder of Ethereum. A tech entrepreneur and mathematician with an interest in analytic number theory, Charles Hoskinson moved into blockchain space in 2013. He co-developed the Ethereum blockchain with Vitalik Buterin before leaving the project in June 2014.
Hoskinson joined crypto and blockchain research firm IOHK to develop Cardano and since then has sponsored various blockchain research labs at the Tokyo Institute of Technology and the University of Edinburgh. He also founded Invictus Innovations.
Hoskinson was the founding chairman of the education committee of the Bitcoin Foundation and established the Cryptocurrency Research Group in 2013. His current focus lies in educating people on the use of crypto and decentralization.

Algorand’s Silvio Micali

Unlike the innovators of other blockchain projects, Silvio Micali is already a famous name in cryptography long before he started developing Algorand. Deemed as one of the top cryptographers, he is a recipient of the prestigious Turing Award in 2012 and RSA prize for cryptography, Gödel Prize (theoretical computer science) in 1993, and ACM fellowship in 2017.
Micali’s work spans around public-key cryptosystems, pseudorandom functions, digital signatures, oblivious transfer, and secure multi-party computation among others. In 1989, he co-invented Zero-Knowledge Proofs with Shafi Goldwasser and Charles Rackoff. He also developed Peppercoin, a cryptographic system for processing micropayments.
A professor at MIT’s electrical engineering and computer science department since 1983, Silvio Micali is also working as a computer scientist at MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. His doctoral students include Shai Halevi, Mihir Bellare, Rafail Ostrovsky, Bonnie Berger, Rafael Pass, Chris Peikert, and Phillip Rogaway - each renowned in their respective fields.

Project Partners and Collaborators

For any business, partnerships and collaborations are the most important aspect since they drive growth and innovation.

Cardano Partnerships

Cardano has formed 17 partnerships so far that either enhance its capabilities or grow its business.
  • Metaps Plus: To integrate the ADA coins into the MeTaps Plus, South Korea’s one of the largest mobile payment platforms.
  • IBM Research: For a software distribution project commissioned by the European Union.
  • PriceWaterhouseCoopers (PwC): To develop a new commercial strategy, probably to bring enterprise users to Cardano.
  • New Balance: All customers can authenticate the footwear purchases on the Cardano blockchain.
  • SIRIN LABS: To integrate the Cardano blockchain in their blockchain smartphone FINNEY and its SIRIN OS.
  • Konfidio: To drive the adoption of the blockchain business model platform among corporations and governments.
  • Algoz: To offer liquidity solutions and trading solutions for its native ADA token.
  • Priviledge: To study and publish decentralized software updates Priviledge is a consortium of renowned companies and scientific universities with the European Union.
  • South Korea Government-Approved Trade Associations:Signed two MoUs with Korea Mobile Game Association (KMGA) and Korea Blockchain Contents Association (KBCCA) to implement Cardano for Korean mobile gaming and digital content.
  • Ethiopian Government: To develop a new digital payment system and combine it with identity cards using its Atala blockchain framework.
  • Georgian Government: Signed MoU to implement Cardano blockchain-enabled projects across education, business, and government services.
Cardano’s other major partnership includes Z/Yen Group’s Distributed Futures practice, COTI Network, and Ellipal Hardware.

Algorand Partnerships

Algorand’s innovativeness and potential to be the blockchain leader has helped it bag a plethora of valuable partnerships across the world. Here are a few partnerships out of the 17 -
  • International Blockchain Monetary Reserve (IBMR): To launch the Southeast Asia Microfinance Platform and create a stablecoin called Asia Reserve Currency Coin (ARCC) to encourage financial inclusion in Southeast Asia.
  • SFB Technologies: To build the infrastructure to create a CBDC (central bank digital currency) dubbed ‘SOV’ for the Marshall Islands.
  • Meld: To tokenize gold and track it over the supply chain using stablecoin for the Australian gold industry.
  • Caratan: To build financial tools and products to promote Fintech adoption at an institutional level.
  • Italian Society of Authors and Publishers (SIAE): To develop copyright management tools and services.
  • DUST Identity: To authenticate physical objects and validate transactions over the blockchain.
  • AssetBlock: A real estate startup launched its tokenized property investment platform on Algorand
  • PlanetWatch: Focused on environmental monitoring, the first "CERN Spin-off " labeled organization is building the world's first immutable air quality ledger on the Algorand blockchain using IoT technologies.
Other major partnerships include World Chess - the commercial arm of the World Chess Federation, Big Data company Syncsort, and Tether.

Consensus Algorithm

Both Cardano and Algorand use PoS or Proof of Stake consensus mechanism at their heart, but that’s where the similarity ends. Each of them has its own spin to it.
In the PoS mechanism, a person can validate a block depending on how many stakes or coins he holds. The stake quantity determines the amount of mining power one has. So how does each of them differ?

Cardano

Cardano’s version is called Ouroboros PoS.
  • Cardano allows stakeholders to pool their resources together in a single ‘stake pool’, thus delegating their stakes to the pool. This is because every elected stakeholder may not have the expertise to create blocks.
  • The physical timeline is divided into small blocks called ‘epochs’ that are made up of fixed slots. These epochs are cyclic.
  • Each such epoch consists of a set of pooled stakeholders.
  • While the endorsers are elected depending on the weight of the number of stakes held by them, a slot leader (for every epoch) is randomly chosen by a digital coin toss among stakeholders. When the endorsers approve the blocks produced by slot leaders, it gets added to the blockchain.
  • The slot leader also selects the slot leader for the next epoch through the ‘coin toss’.
  • Note that having a higher stake increases the probability of getting elected.
  • Currently, the list of validators is fixed and the succession is known beforehand.
With the launch of the Shelley mainnet, Cardano plans to remove the above issue. But this will be a hard fork. Here, the community will decide on block validators through staking.

Algorand

The version Algorand uses is called PPoS (Pure Proof of Stake) consensus mechanism.
  • PPoS randomly selects a token holder as a block producer.
  • The proposed block gets approved by a committee of 1000 randomly selected token owners and then added to the blockchain.
  • The algorithm runs a cryptographically verifiable lucky draw over all the accounts to randomly select committee members as well as the block proposer.
  • This means the identities of the participants are unknown until the blocks are added to the chain.
  • This selection does not depend on the stake size of the nodes at all.
  • PPoS runs this lottery process in complete isolation with other nodes in the network.
The completely randomized election and secret identities of the committee members drastically reduce the chances of any foul playing within the network. As the number of users grows, the network gets stronger and more secure.
Algorand’s PPoS has embraced a more egalitarian ecosystem to negate the wealth gap present in traditional PoS.

Handling Scalability

Cardano

Currently, Cardano offers 50-250 TPS. But with incorporating sharding technology in its Ouroboros Hydra version, the scalability can increase to one million TPS theoretically. The processing speed will increase as more users or nodes join the network.

Algorand

In Algorand, every lottery takes just a microsecond to run. Since such lotteries run independently of each other, multiple lotteries can run simultaneously. This inherently makes PPoS highly scalable. The mainnet itself has the capability to handle 1000 TPS.

Conclusion

Both Cardano and Algorand have sound tech and teams that believe in extensive research and meticulously designed products. Having an early start, there’s no denying that Cardano has established itself in a superior position thanks to the technological achievement, consistency, and transparency it has showcased.
But with Algorand’s ecosystem growing fast, the competition has intensified. Algorand’s aim to bring full transparency, technological innovation, and successful partnerships just within a year have made it a prime challenger to Cardano.
While referring to Algorand, Cardano chief Hoskinson voiced similar opinion - “... they are another one of the science coins and we all kind of support each other. Even though we get academically competitive, we're able to reference each other's work and learn from each other and grow from each other.”
submitted by Superb_Recognition to algorand [link] [comments]

HELP WANTED: CypherPoker.JS needs a team!

Please allow me to introduce myself.
My name is Patrick Bay and over the past few years I've been working on an open-source project called CypherPoker.JS
It's a decentralized, soon to be anonymous, truly peer-to-peer Texas Hold'em platform that incorporates blockchain technologies and a unique cryptosystem named SRA (based on a MIT research paper from the late 70s), which remove the need for trusted third parties and the things that go along with them: rakes / high fees, censorship susceptibility, etc.
To the best of my knowledge, to date there's nothing out there like this.
The ".JS" part means that the software is written in JavaScript for the modern browser, Node.js, and Electron. Basically, it runs on almost any device or operating system and yes, there's a web demo you can try right now (or download the desktop version if you prefer).

A Short History

After building the core game engine and a basic but extensible UI I incorporated Bitcoin, pumped up the software's peer-to-peer capabilities, and most recently added support for Bitcoin Cash. Because creating a team was the plan from the get-go I spent plenty of time documenting everything along the way.
There's plenty more in store for CypherPoker.JS but it's at a point now where I'm not sure I can continue to do it all on my own in a reasonable amount of time.
So I'm reaching out to YOU, that person who thinks that this is a pretty kick-ass concept-turned-prototype that they'd like to be associated with. It has the potential to transform the online gaming industry, not just poker. Yes, this is that early stage project you've been waiting to join.

"I'm in! What can I do?"

Now, I get that not everyone's a coder or designer and there are many shoes that need to be filled if this project is going to continue to grow at a healthy rate. Here are some suggestions:

Most social networks have a way to bring posts to prominence. These may include sharing, re-posting / cross-posting, liking, upvoting, plussing, starring. or otherwise showing approval or providing additional exposure. There's a good chance that you can do that you can do one of these things right now and that it's probably really easy.
Also watch for new releases, updates, and upcoming stuff. Share whatever you think is interesting.

Modern (ECMAScript 2017) JavaScript, HTML5 / CSS3, browser, Node.js, Electron. Make GitHub pull requests with any important / useful / cool things. Some suggestions.

Give it a try! Make a free test account (no sign-up required), get some free testnet Bitcoin or Bitcoin Cash and make a deposit (instructions on the site). Once the deposit is confirmed you can transfer it to other accounts, including new ones that you create. Be aware of this outstanding issue if you want to use Bitcoin or Bitcoin Cash proper.
If you find problems, feel free to post them on the subreddit (or DM), tweet about them, or post them directly to the GitHub issues system where they should eventually end up anyway (you can use a free account). I also [do email](mailto:[email protected]).

Spread the gospel of peer-to-peer poker.
Get to know its deeper inner truths.
Play it, praise it, grow the flock!

Those would help a lot, actually. My laptop's been acting up and I'll probably need a new one soon. I also don't have regular internet access; makes working on this project challenging.
Bitcoin: 18yWpM7CnYox58YMJ2iVa1aJZCs1sufPhg
Bitcoin Cash: bitcoincash:qrgzc6nf6275er7k04tjwauf4ptm9mw9qcaq6fceup

If you have some web server space or Node.js / PHP+MySQL hosting please consider hosting a node. Limits have been built into the software (e.g. max database size), so you don't have to worry about it unnecessarily eating up resources. DM or [email](mailto:[email protected]) me for details.

Tournament funding and advertising are two immediate ideas that spring to mind but if you have any other sponsorship ideas I'd be happy to discuss them. Please contact me via DM or [email](mailto:[email protected]).

Quid Pro Quo

Perhaps you need a hand with one of your projects? Maybe you'd like a few guest blog posts? Possibly there's some other reciprocal arrangement you'd like to propose?
Contact me via DM or [email](mailto:[email protected]) to hash out the details.
submitted by monican_agent to freesoftware [link] [comments]

HELP WANTED: CypherPoker.JS needs a team!

Please allow me to introduce myself.
My name is Patrick Bay and over the past few years I've been working on an open-source project called CypherPoker.JS
It's a decentralized, soon to be anonymous, truly peer-to-peer Texas Hold'em platform that incorporates blockchain technologies and a unique cryptosystem named SRA (based on a MIT research paper from the late 70s), which remove the need for trusted third parties and the things that go along with them: rakes / high fees, censorship susceptibility, etc.
To the best of my knowledge, to date there's nothing out there like this.
The ".JS" part means that the software is written in JavaScript for the modern browser, Node.js, and Electron. Basically, it runs on almost any device or operating system and yes, there's a web demo you can try right now (or download the desktop version if you prefer).

A Short History

After building the core game engine and a basic but extensible UI I incorporated Bitcoin, pumped up the software's peer-to-peer capabilities, and most recently added support for Bitcoin Cash. Because creating a team was the plan from the get-go I spent plenty of time documenting everything along the way.
There's plenty more in store for CypherPoker.JS but it's at a point now where I'm not sure I can continue to do it all on my own in a reasonable amount of time.
So I'm reaching out to YOU, that person who thinks that this is a pretty kick-ass concept-turned-prototype that they'd like to be associated with. It has the potential to transform the online gaming industry, not just poker. Yes, this is that early stage project you've been waiting to join.

"I'm in! What can I do?"

Now, I get that not everyone's a coder or designer and there are many shoes that need to be filled if this project is going to continue to grow at a healthy rate. Here are some suggestions:

Most social networks have a way to bring posts to prominence. I'll leave the details up to you.
Also watch for new releases, updates, and upcoming stuff and share whatever you think is interesting.

Modern (ECMAScript 2017) JavaScript, HTML5 / CSS3, browser, Node.js, Electron. Make GitHub pull requests with any important / useful / cool things. Some suggestions.

Give it a try! Make a free test account (no sign-up required), get some free testnet Bitcoin or Bitcoin Cash and make a deposit (instructions on the site). Once the deposit is confirmed you can transfer it to other accounts, including new ones that you create. Be aware of this outstanding issue if you want to use Bitcoin or Bitcoin Cash proper.
If you find problems, feel free to post them on the subreddit (or DM), tweet about them, or post them directly to the GitHub issues system where they should eventually end up anyway (you can use a free account). I also [do email](mailto:[email protected]).

Spread the gospel of peer-to-peer poker.
Get to know its deeper inner truths.
Play it, praise it, grow the flock!

Those would help a lot, actually. My laptop's been acting up and I'll probably need a new one soon. I also don't have regular internet access; makes working on this project challenging.
DM me for details (I'm tying to abide by the community rules).

If you have some web server space or Node.js / PHP+MySQL hosting please consider hosting a node. Limits have been built into the software (e.g. max database size), so you don't have to worry about it unnecessarily eating up resources. DM or [email](mailto:[email protected]) me for details.

Tournament funding and advertising are two immediate ideas that spring to mind but if you have any other sponsorship ideas I'd be happy to discuss them. Please contact me via DM or [email](mailto:[email protected]).

Quid Pro Quo

Perhaps you need a hand with one of your projects? Maybe you'd like a few guest blog posts? Possibly there's some other reciprocal arrangement you'd like to propose?
Contact me via DM or [email](mailto:[email protected]) to hash out the details.
submitted by monican_agent to btc [link] [comments]

HELP WANTED: CypherPoker.JS needs a team!

Please allow me to introduce myself.
My name is Patrick Bay and over the past few years I've been working on an open-source project called CypherPoker.JS
It's a decentralized, soon to be anonymous, truly peer-to-peer Texas Hold'em platform that incorporates blockchain technologies and a unique cryptosystem named SRA (based on a MIT research paper from the late 70s), which remove the need for trusted third parties and the things that go along with them: rakes / high fees, censorship susceptibility, etc.
To the best of my knowledge, to date there's nothing out there like this.
The ".JS" part means that the software is written in JavaScript for the modern browser, Node.js, and Electron. Basically, it runs on almost any device or operating system and yes, there's a web demo you can try right now (or download the desktop version if you prefer).

A Short History

After building the core game engine and a basic but extensible UI I incorporated Bitcoin, pumped up the software's peer-to-peer capabilities, and most recently added support for Bitcoin Cash. Because creating a team was the plan from the get-go I spent plenty of time documenting everything along the way.
There's plenty more in store for CypherPoker.JS but it's at a point now where I'm not sure I can continue to do it all on my own in a reasonable amount of time.
So I'm reaching out to YOU, that person who thinks that this is a pretty kick-ass concept-turned-prototype that they'd like to be associated with. It has the potential to transform the online gaming industry, not just poker. Yes, this is that early stage project you've been waiting to join.

"I'm in! What can I do?"

Now, I get that not everyone's a coder or designer and there are many shoes that need to be filled if this project is going to continue to grow at a healthy rate. Here are some suggestions:

Most social networks have a way to bring posts to prominence. These may include sharing, re-posting / cross-posting, liking, upvoting, plussing, starring. or otherwise showing approval or providing additional exposure. There's a good chance that you can do that you can do one of these things right now and that it's probably really easy.
Also watch for new releases, updates, and upcoming stuff. Share whatever you think is interesting.

Modern (ECMAScript 2017) JavaScript, HTML5 / CSS3, browser, Node.js, Electron. Make GitHub pull requests with any important / useful / cool things. Some suggestions.

Give it a try! Make a free test account (no sign-up required), get some free testnet Bitcoin or Bitcoin Cash and make a deposit (instructions on the site). Once the deposit is confirmed you can transfer it to other accounts, including new ones that you create. Be aware of this outstanding issue if you want to use Bitcoin or Bitcoin Cash proper.
If you find problems, feel free to post them on the subreddit (or DM), tweet about them, or post them directly to the GitHub issues system where they should eventually end up anyway (you can use a free account). I also [do email](mailto:[email protected]).

Spread the gospel of peer-to-peer poker.
Get to know its deeper inner truths.
Play it, praise it, grow the flock!

Those would help a lot, actually. My laptop's been acting up and I'll probably need a new one soon. I also don't have regular internet access; makes working on this project challenging.
Bitcoin: 18yWpM7CnYox58YMJ2iVa1aJZCs1sufPhg
Bitcoin Cash: bitcoincash:qrgzc6nf6275er7k04tjwauf4ptm9mw9qcaq6fceup

If you have some web server space or Node.js / PHP+MySQL hosting please consider hosting a node. Limits have been built into the software (e.g. max database size), so you don't have to worry about it unnecessarily eating up resources. DM or [email](mailto:[email protected]) me for details.

Tournament funding and advertising are two immediate ideas that spring to mind but if you have any other sponsorship ideas I'd be happy to discuss them. Please contact me via DM or [email](mailto:[email protected]).

Quid Pro Quo

Perhaps you need a hand with one of your projects? Maybe you'd like a few guest blog posts? Possibly there's some other reciprocal arrangement you'd like to propose?
Contact me via DM or [email](mailto:[email protected]) to hash out the details.
submitted by monican_agent to opensource [link] [comments]

Quantum Computing Vs. Blockchain

Quantum Computing Vs. Blockchain


The cryptocurrency community has long been discussing one technical feature of the blockchain, which directly affects its future. We are talking about the threat to the blockchain from the so-called quantum computing. The fact is that if these threats are implemented, crypto assets will not be able to function technically and all problems with their regulation will disappear by themselves.
Indeed, what is the point of creating a serious regulatory system for an instrument that will soon become simply inoperable?
Most modern cryptocurrencies are built on a particular cryptographic algorithm that ensures its security. The level of protection is determined by the amount of work required by the key, the password that determines the final result of the cryptographic conversion. It is known that when solving cryptography problems, the classical computer performs total testing of possible keys, in turn, one after another. A quantum computer can instantly test a set of keys and establish a combination that has the maximum probability of being true and thereby compromise the cryptosystem.
The threat to bitcoin is that high-speed quantum computers, as a result, will be able to “create problems” to the encryption processes and digital signatures used in the technology of blockchain and virtual currencies. Ultra-fast calculations would in principle allow to forge smart contracts and steal “coins”.
Most cryptocurrencies use public-key encryption algorithms for communications and, in particular, digital signatures. Public key cryptography is based on one-way mathematical functions-operations that are simple in one direction and difficult in the other. If we use quantum computers rather than classical ones to solve the factorization problem, it is solved much faster. Quantum computer allows for a couple of minutes to determine the secret key on the public, and the knowledge of the secret key allows you to access the address of the bitcoin network. It turns out that the owner of the quantum computer will be able to break the encryption system with a public key and write off (steal) “coins” from the appropriate address. This feature of quantum computing is the main danger for bitcoin.
According to some estimates, the quantum computer will be able to determine the secret key on the open in 2027.
Some commentators believe that with the advent of full-fledged quantum computers, the era of cryptocurrencies and blockchain will come to its logical end — the cryptography systems on which cryptocurrencies are based will be compromised, and the cryptocurrencies themselves will become worthless. Allegedly, the first thing that the owner of a quantum computer will do is quickly mine the remaining bitcoins, ethers and other popular crypto-coins. Experts have estimated that bitcoin hacking will require a quantum computer with a capacity of 10 thousand qubits, and it is not so long to wait for it — perhaps ten years, or even less.
IBM 50Q System: An IBM cryostat wired for a 50 qubit system. Photo from the www.ibm.com
However, not everyone shares this opinion.
According to new forecasts, a commercially acceptable version of the quantum computer will not appear until 2040. Many cryptocurrency experts are sure that by this moment developers will be able to prepare and adapt the blockchain to new realities. They will be able to modify the cryptocurrency code and protect the technologies used in it from hacking.
Analysts, however, emphasize that although an attacker with a powerful quantum computer will be able to get the secret key from the public, it is impossible to get the public key from the bitcoin address of the recipient of the transaction. The public key is converted to a bitcoin address by several unidirectional hash functions that are resistant to quantum computation. However, in fact, the public key still gets into the network one day. This occurs when the transaction is signed by the sender of the “coin”. Otherwise, the network will not be able to confirm the transaction, because there is no other way to verify the authenticity of the sender’s signature.
The widespread fear of a direct threat to bitcoin by quantum computing is exaggerated and comes from ignorance. In fact, using crowdsourcing, blockchain technology solves many problems, including reducing threats to its security from quantum computers. That is why the network based on the blockchain for superior protection network and platform of centralized architecture. Dr. Brennan has analyzed the threat of blockchain technologies by modern systems of quantum computing. He investigated the potential of a quantum computer in terms of the possibility of its use “for manipulating the blockchain in the centralization of hashing power” and assessed the probability of disclosure of the key of the encryption system that underlies the mechanism of protecting users of the blockchain. The results of the study show that the existing developments in the field of quantum computing are very far from the “imaginary possibilities” of quantum technologies — the modern quantum infrastructure is characterized by speed, absolutely insufficient to solve extremely complex problems such as the search for an acceptable time encryption key.
At least on the horizon of the next 10 years, the speed of quantum computers will be insufficient compared to the capabilities of modern mining machines.

Bitcoin will not give way before quantum computing.

Can Quantum Computing Take Over Blockchain?

Practice crosses out any theoretical constructions that claim that quantum computing is able to “master” the blockchain. This is due to the limited capabilities of existing technical means and the ongoing development of the blockchain protection system. The technology that can compromise the work of the blockchain is becoming obsolete by the time of its appearance, it is constantly about ten years behind the development of blockchain technology.
The head of the laboratory of quantum computing John Martinis from Google also rejected the assumption that quantum computing could pose a direct threat to blockchain systems and cryptocurrencies in the near future. Martinis believes that the process of creating quantum computers will take at least a decade, and the practical implementation of effective quantum computing will require even more time. He believes that the creation of quantum devices “is really problematic and much more difficult than the creation of a classical computer”.
From another angle, one of the world’s leading experts in the field of bitcoin and blockchain Andreas Antonopoulos also looked at the problem under consideration. Andreas Antonopoulos official Twitter page.
He is convinced that the US NSA and other intelligence agencies will not use a quantum computer against bitcoin, even if they have such weapons.
Andreas Antonopoulos said:
“I’m not at all worried that the NSA might have a quantum computer, because the basic security law says: if you have a powerful secret weapon, you do not use it. You need a very significant excuse to use it”.
He cited as an example the decryption by the British cryptographer Alan Turing of the German military machine encryption Telegraph messages “Enigma” during the Second World War. The Germans used this machine, in particular, for secret communication in the Navy. The British government then decided to keep this success in the strictest confidence, and by any means to hide the source of information (it was removed from the communication channels). The British had even deliberately not to prevent the sinking of their ships by the Germans, because as soon as the enemy realizes the compromise of the codes used by him, he immediately takes measures to Refine its technology.
The question of the threat of quantum computing is not the existence of a quantum computer, but its power — the number of quantum bits (qubits). Special services at this stage of development can not have enough power to attack the Bitcoin blockchain. However, a really real problem will arise when quantum computers become commercially available, but not so much that everyone can use them in their bitcoin wallet. During this transition period, bitcoin will need to switch to new algorithms. It is not yet clear how this transition will take place.
Researchers estimate the exploitability of the ideas of quantum-secured blockchain, the essence of which is that the Central element in the protection technology of the blockchain to make the quantum technology of quantum communication. Quantum communications (or, more precisely, quantum key distribution) guarantee security based on the laws of physics, not on the complexity of solving mathematical problems, as in the case of public-key cryptography. As a result, the quantum blockchain (it can be defined as a set of methods of using quantum technologies for calculations; the work of the quantum blockchain is based on the use of quantum communications to authenticate the participants of operations) will be invulnerable to attacks using a quantum computer.
Brennen and Tucker agree that quantum computing, at least on paper, definitely poses a threat to the security of blockchain networks. Feed her fears caused by the injection of panic sensational articles in the media. Tucker believes that the talk that quantum computing poses an immediate threat to the blockchain is distracting from the really important topics for discussion. The quantum threat to bitcoin cannot be completely excluded, but the level of this threat is estimated as minimal, especially if we take into account the high reliability of the network of this cryptocurrency and powerful incentives to ensure the highest level of its security.
Perhaps, from all this, it is possible to draw two conclusions. First, bitcoin in the current modification is really vulnerable to quantum computing. Secondly, it is equally obvious that there are and there will be many opportunities in the future to improve it. On the one hand, it is, in particular, alternative systems of cryptographic protection of transactions, and including on the basis of public-key ciphers, on the other — quantum communication systems that guarantee the security of communication without the use of mathematics.
So quantum systems promise new means of protection of virtual currency blockchains. If we turn to ordinary money, it can be noted that as technological development is constantly evolving and their means of protection. Remember how to protect against counterfeiting of conventional paper money is constantly coming up with new and unusual technologies. From all this, it follows that from a technical point of view, crypto assets are for a long time, which makes their regulation useful.
Material developed by the Legal Department of EdJoWa Holding
submitted by IMBA-Exchange to u/IMBA-Exchange [link] [comments]

CypherPoker.JS needs a team!

Please allow me to introduce myself.
My name is Patrick Bay and over the past few years I've been working on an open-source project called CypherPoker.JS
It's a decentralized, soon to be anonymous, truly peer-to-peer Texas Hold'em platform that incorporates blockchain technologies and a unique cryptosystem named SRA (based on a MIT research paper from the late 70s), which remove the need for trusted third parties and the things that go along with them: rakes / high fees, censorship susceptibility, etc.
To the best of my knowledge, to date there's nothing out there like this.
The ".JS" part means that the software is written in JavaScript for the modern browser, Node.js, and Electron. Basically, it runs on almost any device or operating system and yes, there's a web demo you can try right now (or download the desktop version if you prefer).

A Short History

After building the core game engine and a basic but extensible UI I incorporated Bitcoin, pumped up the software's peer-to-peer capabilities, and most recently added support for Bitcoin Cash. Because creating a team was the plan from the get-go I spent plenty of time documenting everything along the way.
There's plenty more in store for CypherPoker.JS but it's at a point now where I'm not sure I can continue to do it all on my own in a reasonable amount of time.
So I'm reaching out to YOU, that person who thinks that this is a pretty kick-ass concept-turned-prototype that they'd like to be associated with. It has the potential to transform the online gaming industry, not just poker. Yes, this is that early stage project you've been waiting to join.

"I'm in! What can I do?"

Now, I get that not everyone's a coder or designer and there are many shoes that need to be filled if this project is going to continue to grow at a healthy rate. Here are some suggestions:

Most social networks have a way to bring posts to prominence. These may include sharing, re-posting / cross-posting, liking, upvoting, plussing, starring. or otherwise showing approval or providing additional exposure. There's a good chance that you can do that you can do one of these things right now and that it's probably really easy.
Also watch for new releases, updates, and upcoming stuff. Share whatever you think is interesting.

Modern (ECMAScript 2017) JavaScript, HTML5 / CSS3, browser, Node.js, Electron. Make GitHub pull requests with any important / useful / cool things. Some suggestions.

Give it a try! Make a free test account (no sign-up required), get some free testnet Bitcoin or Bitcoin Cash and make a deposit (instructions on the site). Once the deposit is confirmed you can transfer it to other accounts, including new ones that you create. Be aware of this outstanding issue if you want to use Bitcoin or Bitcoin Cash proper.
If you find problems, feel free to post them on the subreddit (or DM), tweet about them, or post them directly to the GitHub issues system where they should eventually end up anyway (you can use a free account). I also [do email](mailto:[email protected]).

Spread the gospel of peer-to-peer poker.
Get to know its deeper inner truths.
Play it, praise it, grow the flock!

Those would help a lot, actually. My laptop's been acting up and I'll probably need a new one soon. I also don't have regular internet access; makes working on this project challenging.
Bitcoin: 18yWpM7CnYox58YMJ2iVa1aJZCs1sufPhg
Bitcoin Cash: bitcoincash:qrgzc6nf6275er7k04tjwauf4ptm9mw9qcaq6fceup

If you have some web server space or Node.js / PHP+MySQL hosting please consider hosting a node. Limits have been built into the software (e.g. max database size), so you don't have to worry about it unnecessarily eating up resources. DM or [email](mailto:[email protected]) me for details.

Tournament funding and advertising are two immediate ideas that spring to mind but if you have any other sponsorship ideas I'd be happy to discuss them. Please contact me via DM or [email](mailto:[email protected]).

Quid Pro Quo

Perhaps you need a hand with one of your projects? Maybe you'd like a few guest blog posts? Possibly there's some other reciprocal arrangement you'd like to propose?
Contact me via DM or [email](mailto:[email protected]) to hash out the details.
submitted by monican_agent to cypherpoker [link] [comments]

World History Timeline of Events Leading up to Bitcoin - In the Making

A (live/editable) timeline of historical events directly or indirectly related to the creation of Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies
*still workin' on this so check back later and more will be added, if you have any suggested dates/events feel free to lemme know...
This timeline includes dates pertaining to:
Ancient Bartering – first recorded in Egypt (resources, services...) – doesn’t scale
Tally sticks were used, making notches in bones or wood, as a form of money of account
9000-6000 BC Livestock considered the first form of currency
c3200 BC Clay tablets used in Uruk (Iraq) for accounting (believed to be the earliest form of writing)
3000 BC Grain is used as a currency, measured out in Shekels
3000 BC Banking developed in Mesopotamia
3000 BC? Punches used to stamp symbols on coins were a precursor to the printing press and modern coins
? BC Since ancient Persia and all the way up until the invention and expansion of the telegraph Homing Pigeons were used to carry messages
2000 BC Merchants in Assyria, India and Sumeria lent grain to farmers and traders as a precursor to banks
1700 BC In Babylon at the time of Hammurabi, in the 18th century BC, there are records of loans made by the priests of the temple.
1200 BC Shell money first used in China
1000-600 BC Crude metal coins first appear in China
640 BC Precious metal coins – Gold & Silver first used in ancient Lydia and coastal Greek cities featuring face to face heads of a bull and a lion – first official minted currency made from electrum, a mixture of gold and silver
600-500 BC Atbash Cipher
A substitution Cipher used by ancient Hebrew scholars mapping the alphabet in reverse, for example, in English an A would be a Z, B a Y etc.
400 BC Skytale used by Sparta
474 BC Hundreds of gold coins from this era were discovered in Rome in 2018
350 BC Greek hydraulic semaphore system, an optical communication system developed by Aeneas Tacticus.
c200 BC Polybius Square
??? Wealthy stored coins in temples, where priests also lent them out
??? Rome was the first to create banking institutions apart from temples
118 BC First banknote in the form of 1 foot sq pieces of white deerskin
100-1 AD Caesar Cipher
193 Aureus, a gold coin of ancient Rome, minted by Septimius Severus
324 Solidus, pure gold coin, minted under Constantine’s rule, lasted until the late 8th century
600s Paper currency first developed in Tang Dynasty China during the 7th century, although true paper money did not appear until the 11th century, during the Song Dynasty, 960–1279
c757–796 Silver pennies based on the Roman denarius became the staple coin of Mercia in Great Britain around the time of King Offa
806 First paper banknotes used in China but isn’t widely accepted in China until 960
1024 The first series of standard government notes were issued in 1024 with denominations like 1 guàn (貫, or 700 wén), 1 mín (緡, or 1000 wén), up to 10 guàn. In 1039 only banknotes of 5 guàn and 10 guàn were issued, and in 1068 a denomination of 1 guàn was introduced which became forty percent of all circulating Jiaozi banknotes.
1040 The first movable type printer was invented in China and made of porcelain
? Some of the earliest forms of long distance communication were drums used by Native Africans and smoke signals used by Native Americans and Chinese
1088 Movable type in Song Dynasty China
1120 By the 1120s the central government officially stepped in and produced their own state-issued paper money (using woodblock printing)
1150 The Knights Templar issued bank notes to pilgrims. Pilgrims deposited their valuables with a local Templar preceptory before embarking, received a document indicating the value of their deposit, then used that document upon arrival in the Holy Land to retrieve their funds in an amount of treasure of equal value.
1200s-1300s During the 13th century bankers from north Italy, collectively known as Lombards, gradually replace the Jews in their traditional role as money-lenders to the rich and powerful. – Florence, Venice and Genoa - The Bardi and Peruzzi Families dominated banking in 14th century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts of Europe
1200 By the time Marco Polo visited China they’d move from coins to paper money, who introduced the concept to Europe. An inscription warned, "All counterfeiters will be decapitated." Before the use of paper, the Chinese used coins that were circular, with a rectangular hole in the middle. Several coins could be strung together on a rope. Merchants in China, if they became rich enough, found that their strings of coins were too heavy to carry around easily. To solve this problem, coins were often left with a trustworthy person, and the merchant was given a slip of paper recording how much money they had with that person. Marco Polo's account of paper money during the Yuan Dynasty is the subject of a chapter of his book, The Travels of Marco Polo, titled "How the Great Kaan Causeth the Bark of Trees, Made Into Something Like Paper, to Pass for Money All Over his Country."
1252 Florin minted in Florence, becomes the hard currency of its day helping Florence thrive economically
1340 Double-entry bookkeeping - The clerk keeping the accounts for the Genoese firm of Massari painstakingly fills in the ledger for the year 1340.
1397 Medici Bank established
1450 Johannes Gutenberg builds the printing press – printed words no longer just for the rich
1455 Paper money disappears from China
1466 Polyalphabetic Cipher
1466 Rotating cipher disks – Vatican – greatest crypto invention in 1000 yrs – the first system to challenge frequency analysis
1466 First known mechanical cipher machine
1472 The oldest bank still in existence founded, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, headquartered in Siena, Italy
1494 Double-entry bookkeeping system codified by Luca Pacioli
1535 Wampum, a form of currency used by Native Americans, a string of beads made from clamshells, is first document.
1553 Vigenere Cipher
1557 Phillip II of Spain managed to burden his kingdom with so much debt (as the result of several pointless wars) that he caused the world's first national bankruptcy — as well as the world's second, third and fourth, in rapid succession.
1577 Newspaper in Korea
1586 The Babington Plot
1590 Cabinet Noir was established in France. Its mission was to open, read and reseal letters, and great expertise was developed in the restoration of broken seals. In the knowledge that mail was being opened, correspondents began to develop systems to encrypt and decrypt their letters. The breaking of these codes gave birth to modern systematic scientific code breaking.
1600s Promissory banknotes began in London
1600s By the early 17th century banking begins also to exist in its modern sense - as a commercial service for customers rather than kings. – Late 17th century we see cheques slowly gains acceptance
The total of the money left on deposit by a bank's customers is a large sum, only a fraction of which is usually required for withdrawals. A proportion of the rest can be lent out at interest, bringing profit to the bank. When the customers later come to realize this hidden value of their unused funds, the bank's profit becomes the difference between the rates of interest paid to depositors and demanded from debtors.
The transformation from moneylenders into private banks is a gradual one during the 17th and 18th centuries. In England it is achieved by various families of goldsmiths who early in the period accept money on deposit purely for safe-keeping. Then they begin to lend some of it out. Finally, by the 18th century, they make banking their business in place of their original craft as goldsmiths.
1605 Newspaper in Straussburg
c1627 Great Cipher
1637 Wampum is declared as legal tender in the U.S. (where we got the slang word “clams” for money)
1656 Johan Palmstruch establishes the Stockholm Banco
1661 Paper Currency reappears in Europe, soon became common - The goldsmith-bankers of London began to give out the receipts as payable to the bearer of the document rather than the original depositor
1661 Palmstruch issues credit notes which can be exchanged, on presentation to his bank, for a stated number of silver coins
1666 Stockholms Banco, the predecessor to the Central Bank of Sweden issues the first paper money in Europe. Soon went bankrupt for printing too much money.
1667 He issues more notes than his bank can afford to redeem with silver and winds up in disgrace, facing a death penalty (commuted to imprisonment) for fraud.
1668 Bank of Sweden – today the 2nd oldest surviving bank
1694 First Central Bank established in the UK was the first bank to initiate the permanent issue of banknotes
Served as model for most modern central banks.
The modern banknote rests on the assumption that money is determined by a social and legal consensus. A gold coin's value is simply a reflection of the supply and demand mechanism of a society exchanging goods in a free market, as opposed to stemming from any intrinsic property of the metal. By the late 17th century, this new conceptual outlook helped to stimulate the issue of banknotes.
1700s Throughout the commercially energetic 18th century there are frequent further experiments with bank notes - deriving from a recognized need to expand the currency supply beyond the availability of precious metals.
1710 Physiocracy
1712 First commercial steam engine
1717 Master of the Royal Mint Sir Isaac Newton established a new mint ratio between silver and gold that had the effect of driving silver out of circulation (bimetalism) and putting Britain on a gold standard.
1735 Classical Economics – markets regulate themselves when free of intervention
1744 Mayer Amschel Rothschild, Founder of the Rothschild Banking Empire, is Born in Frankfurt, Germany
Mayer Amschel Rothschild extended his banking empire across Europe by carefully placing his five sons in key positions. They set up banks in Frankfurt, Vienna, London, Naples, and Paris. By the mid 1800’s they dominated the banking industry, lending to governments around the world and people such as the Vanderbilts, Carnegies, and Cecil Rhodes.
1745 There was a gradual move toward the issuance of fixed denomination notes in England standardized printed notes ranging from £20 to £1,000 were being printed.
1748 First recorded use of the word buck for a dollar, stemming from the Colonial period in America when buck skins were commonly traded
1757 Colonial Scrip Issued in US
1760s Mayer Amschel Rothschild establishes his banking business
1769 First steam powered car
1775-1938 US Diplomatic Codes & Ciphers by Ralph E Weber used – problems were security and distribution
1776 American Independence
1776 Adam Smith’s Invisible Hand theory helped bankers and money-lenders limit government interference in the banking sector
1781 The Bank of North America was a private bank first adopted created the US Nation's first de facto central bank. When shares in the bank were sold to the public, the Bank of North America became the country's first initial public offering. It lasted less than ten years.
1783 First steamboat
1791 Congress Creates the First US Bank – A Private Company, Partly Owned by Foreigners – to Handle the Financial Needs of the New Central Government. First Bank of the United States, a National bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, it was not renewed in 1811.
Previously, the 13 states had their own banks, currencies and financial institutions, which had an average lifespan of about 5 years.
1792 First optical telegraph invented where towers with telescopes were dispersed across France 12-25 km apart, relaying signals according to positions of arms extended from the top of the towers.
1795 Thomas Jefferson invents the Jefferson Disk Cipher or Wheel Cipher
1797 to 1821 Restriction Period by England of trading banknotes for silver during Napoleonic Wars
1797 Currency Crisis
Although the Bank was originally a private institution, by the end of the 18th century it was increasingly being regarded as a public authority with civic responsibility toward the upkeep of a healthy financial system.
1799 First paper machine
1800 Banque de France – France’s central bank opens to try to improve financing of the war
1800 Invention of the battery
1801 Rotchschild Dynasty begins in Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire – established international banking family through his 5 sons who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Naples
1804 Steam locomotive
1807 Internal combustion engine and automobile
1807 Robert Fulton expands water transportation and trade with the workable steamboat.
1809 Telegraphy
1811 First powered printing press, also first to use a cylinder
1816 The Privately Owned Second Bank of the US was Chartered – It Served as the Main Depository for Government Revenue, Making it a Highly Profitable Bank – charter not renewed in 1836
1816 The first working telegraph was built using static electricity
1816 Gold becomes the official standard of value in England
1820 Industrial Revolution
c1820 Neoclassical Economics
1821 British gov introduces the gold standard - With governments issuing the bank notes, the inherent danger is no longer bankruptcy but inflation.
1822 Charles Babbage, considered the "father of the computer", begins building the first programmable mechanical computer.
1832 Andrew Jackson Campaigns Against the 2nd Bank of the US and Vetoes Bank Charter Renewal
Andrew Jackson was skeptical of the central banking system and believed it gave too few men too much power and caused inflation. He was also a proponent of gold and silver and an outspoken opponent of the 2nd National Bank. The Charter expired in 1836.
1833 President Jackson Issues Executive Order to Stop Depositing Government Funds Into Bank of US
By September 1833, government funds were being deposited into state chartered banks.
1833-1837 Manufactured “boom” created by central bankers – money supply Increases 84%, Spurred by the 2nd Bank of the US
The total money supply rose from $150 million to $267 million
1835 Jackson Escapes Assassination. Assassin misfired twice.
1837-1862 The “Free Banking Era” there was no formal central bank in the US, and banks issued their own notes again
1838 First Telegram sent using Morse Code across 3 km, in 1844 he sent a message across 71 km from Washington DC to Baltimore.
1843 Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm for computing
1844 Modern central bank of England established - meaning only the central bank of England could issue banknotes – prior to that commercial banks could issue their own and were the primary form of currency throughout England
the Bank of England was restricted to issue new banknotes only if they were 100% backed by gold or up to £14 million in government debt.
1848 Communist Manifesto
1850 The first undersea telegraphic communications cable connected France in England after latex produced from the sap of the Palaquium gutta tree in 1845 was proposed as insulation for the underwater cables.
1852 Many countries in Europe build telegram networks, however post remained the primary means of communication to distant countries.
1855 In England fully printed notes that did not require the name of the payee and the cashier's signature first appeared
1855 The printing telegraph made it possible for a machine with 26 alphabetic keys to print the messages automatically and was soon adopted worldwide.
1856 Belgian engineer Charles Bourseul proposed telephony
1856 The Atlantic Telegraph company was formed in London to stretch a commercial telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean, completed in 1866.
1860 The Pony Express was founded, able to deliver mail of wealthy individuals or government officials from coast to coast in 10 days.
1861 The East coast was connected to the West when Western Union completed the transcontinental telegraph line, putting an end to unprofitable The Pony Express.
1862-1863 First US banknotes - Lincoln Over Rules Debt-Based Money and Issues Greenbacks to Fund Civil War
Bankers would only lend the government money under certain conditions and at high interest rates, so Lincoln issued his own currency – “greenbacks” – through the US Treasury, and made them legal tender. His soldiers went on to win the war, followed by great economic expansion.
1863 to 1932 “National Banking Era” Commercial banks in the United States had legally issued banknotes before there was a national currency; however, these became subject to government authorization from 1863 to 1932
1864 Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen founded the first rural credit union in Heddesdorf (now part of Neuwied) in Germany. By the time of Raiffeisen's death in 1888, credit unions had spread to Italy, France, the Netherlands, England, Austria, and other nations
1870 Long-distance telegraph lines connected Britain and India.
c1871 Marginalism - The doctrines of marginalism and the Marginal Revolution are often interpreted as a response to the rise of the worker's movement, Marxian economics and the earlier (Ricardian) socialist theories of the exploitation of labour.
1871 Carl Menger’s Principles of Economics – Austrian School
1872 Marx’s Das Capital
1872 Australia becomes the first nation to be connected to the rest of the world via submarine telegraph cables.
1876 Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone, first called the electric speech machine – revolutionized communication
1877 Thomas Edison – Phonograph
1878 Western Union, the leading telegraph provider of the U.S., begins to lose out to the telephone technology of the National Bell Telephone Company.
1881 President James Garfield, Staunch Proponent of “Honest Money” Backed by Gold and Silver, was Assassinated
Garfield opposed fiat currency (money that was not backed by any physical object). He had the second shortest Presidency in history.
1882 First description of the one-time pad
1886 First gas powered car
1888 Ballpoint pen
1892 Cinematograph
1895 System of wireless communication using radio waves
1896 First successful intercontinental telegram
1898 Polyethylene
1899 Nickel-cadmium battery
1907 Banking Panic of 1907
The New York Stock Exchange dropped dramatically as everyone tried to get their money out of the banks at the same time across the nation. This banking panic spurred debate for banking reform. JP Morgan and others gathered to create an image of concern and stability in the face of the panic, which eventually led to the formation of the Federal Reserve. The founders of the Federal Reserve pretended like the bankers were opposed to the idea of its formation in order to mislead the public into believing that the Federal Reserve would help to regulate bankers when in fact it really gave even more power to private bankers, but in a less transparent way.
1908 St Mary’s Bank – first credit union in US
1908 JP Morgan Associate and Rockefeller Relative Nelson Aldrich Heads New National Monetary Commission
Senate Republican leader, Nelson Aldrich, heads the new National Monetary Commission that was created to study the cause of the banking panic. Aldrich had close ties with J.P. Morgan and his daughter married John D. Rockefeller.
1910 Bankers Meet Secretly on Jekyll Island to Draft Federal Reserve Banking Legislation
Over the course of a week, some of the nation’s most powerful bankers met secretly off the coast of Georgia, drafting a proposal for a private Central Banking system.
1913 Federal Reserve Act Passed
Two days before Christmas, while many members of Congress were away on vacation, the Federal Reserve Act was passed, creating the Central banking system we have today, originally with gold backed Federal Reserve Notes. It was based on the Aldrich plan drafted on Jekyll Island and gave private bankers supreme authority over the economy. They are now able to create money out of nothing (and loan it out at interest), make decisions without government approval, and control the amount of money in circulation.
1913 Income tax established -16th Amendment Ratified
Taxes ensured that citizens would cover the payment of debt due to the Central Bank, the Federal Reserve, which was also created in 1913.The 16th Amendment stated: “The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.”
1914 November, Federal Reserve Banks Open
JP Morgan and Co. Profits from Financing both sides of War and Purchasing Weapons
J.P. Morgan and Co. made a deal with the Bank of England to give them a monopoly on underwriting war bonds for the UK and France. They also invested in the suppliers of war equipment to Britain and France.
1914 WWI
1917 Teletype cipher
1917 The one-time pad
1917 Zimmerman Telegram intercepted and decoded by Room 40, the cryptanalysis department of the British Military during WWI.
1918 GB returns to gold standard post-war but it didn’t work out
1919 First rotor machine, an electro-mechanical stream ciphering and decrypting machine.
1919 Founding of The Cipher Bureau, Poland’s intelligence and cryptography agency.
1919-1929 The Black Chamber, a forerunner of the NSA, was the first U.S. cryptanalytic organization. Worked with the telegraph company Western Union to illegally acquire foreign communications of foreign embassies and representatives. It was shut down in 1929 as funding was removed after it was deemed unethical to intercept private domestic radio signals.
1920s Department stores, hotel chains and service staions begin offering customers charge cards
1921-1929 The “Roaring 20’s” – The Federal Reserve Floods the Economy with Cash and Credit
From 1921 to 1929 the Federal Reserve increased the money supply by $28 billion, almost a 62% increase over an eight-year period.[3] This artificially created another “boom”.
1927 Quartz clock
1928 First experimental Television broadcast in the US.
1929 Federal Reserve Contracts the Money Supply
In 1929, the Federal Reserve began to pull money out of circulation as loans were paid back. They created a “bust” which was inevitable after issuing so much credit in the years before. The Federal Reserve’s actions triggered the banking crisis, which led to the Great Depression.
1929 October 24, “Black Thursday”, Stock Market Crash
The most devastating stock market crash in history. Billions of dollars in value were consolidated into the private banker’s hands at the expense of everyone else.
1930s The Great Depression marked the end of the gold standard
1931 German Enigma machines attained and reconstructed.
1932 Turbo jet engine patented
1933 SEC founded - passed the Glass–Steagall Act, which separated investment banking and commercial banking. This was to avoid more risky investment banking activities from ever again causing commercial bank failures.
1933 FM Radio
1933 Germany begins Telex, a network of teleprinters sending and receiving text based messages. Post WWII Telex networks began to spread around the world.
1936 Austrian engineer Paul Eisler invented Printed circuit board
1936 Beginning of the Keynesian Revolution
1937 Typex, British encryption machines which were upgraded versions of Enigma machines.
1906 Teletypewriters
1927 Founding of highly secret and unofficial Signal Intelligence Service, SIS, the U.S. Army’s codebreaking division.
1937 Made illegal for Americans to own gold
1938 Z1 built by Konrad Zuse is the first freely programmable computer in the world.
1939 WWII – decline of the gold standard which greatly restricted policy making
1939-45 Codetalkers - The Navajo code is the only spoken military code never to have been deciphered - "Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima."—Howard Connor
1940 Modems
1942 Deciphering Japanese coded messages leads to a turning point victory for the U.S. in WWII.
1943 At Bletchley Park, Alan Turing and team build a specialized cipher-breaking machine called Heath Robinson.
1943 Colossus computer built in London to crack the German Lorenz cipher.
1944 Bretton Woods – convenient after the US had most of the gold
1945 Manhattan Project – Atom Bomb
1945 Transatlantic telephone cable
1945 Claude E. Shannon published "A mathematical theory of cryptography", commonly accepted as the starting point for development of modern cryptography.
C1946 Crypto Wars begin and last to this day
1946 Charg-it card created by John C Biggins
1948 Atomic clock
1948 Claude Shannon writes a paper that establishes the mathematical basis of information theory
1949 Info theorist Claude Shannon asks “What does an ideal cipher look like?” – one time pad – what if the keys are not truly random
1950 First credit card released by the Diners Club, able to be used in 20 restaurants in NYC
1951 NSA, National Security Agency founded and creates the KL-7, an off-line rotor encryption machine
1952 First thermonuclear weapon
1953 First videotape recorder
1953 Term “Hash” first used meaning to “chop” or “make a mess” out of something
1954 Atomic Energy Act (no mention of crypto)
1957 The NSA begins producing ROMOLUS encryption machines, soon to be used by NATO
1957 First PC – IBM
1957 First Satellite – Sputnik 1
1958 Western Union begins building a nationwide Telex network in the U.S.
1960s Machine readable codes were added to the bottom of cheques in MICR format, which speeded up the clearing and sorting process
1960s Financial organizations were beginning to require strong commercial encryption on the rapidly growing field of wired money transfer.
1961 Electronic clock
1963 June 4, Kennedy Issued an Executive Order (11110) that Authorized the US Treasury to Issue Silver Certificates, Threatening the Federal Reserve’s Monopoly on Money
This government issued currency would bypass the governments need to borrow from bankers at interest.
1963 Electronic calculator
1963 Nov. 22, Kennedy Assassinated
1963 Johnson Reverses Kennedy’s Banking Rule and Restores Power to the Federal Reserve
1964 8-Track
1964 LAN, Local Area Networks adapters
1965 Moore’s Law by CEO of Intel Gordon Moore observes that the number of components per integrated circuit doubles every year, and projected this rate of growth would continue for at least another decade. In 1975 he revised it to every two years.
1967 First ATM installed at Barclay’s Bank in London
1968 Cassette Player introduced
1969 First connections of ARPANET, predecessor of the internet, are made. started – SF, SB, UCLA, Utah (now Darpa) – made to stay ahead of the Soviets – there were other networks being built around the world but it was very hard to connect them – CERN in Europe
1970s Stagflation – unemployment + inflation, which Keynesian theory could not explain
1970s Business/commercial applications for Crypto emerge – prior to this time it was militarily used – ATMs 1st got people thinking about commercial applications of cryptography – data being sent over telephone lines
1970s The public developments of the 1970s broke the near monopoly on high quality cryptography held by government organizations.
Use of checks increased in 70s – bringing about ACH
One way functions...
A few companies began selling access to private networks – but weren’t allowed to connect to the internet – business and universities using Arpanet had no commercial traffic – internet was used for research, not for commerce or advertising
1970 Railroads threatened by the growing popularity of air travel. Penn Central Railroad declares bankruptcy resulting in a $3.2 billion bailout
1970 Conjugate coding used in an attempt to design “money physically impossible to counterfeit”
1971 The US officially removes the gold standard
1971 Email invented
1971 Email
1971 First microcomputer on a chip
1971 Lockheed Bailout - $1.4 billion – Lockheed was a major government defense contractor
1972 First programmable word processor
1972 First video game console
1973 SWIFT established
1973 Ethernet invented, standardized in ‘83
1973 Mobile phone
1973 First commercial GUI – Xerox Alto
1973 First touchscreen
1973 Emails made up more than ¾ of ARPANET’s packets – people had to keep a map of the network by their desk – so DNS was created
1974 A protocol for packet network intercommunication – TCP/IP – Cerf and Kahn
1974 Franklin National Bank Bailout - $1.5 billion (valued at that time) - At the time, it was the largest bank failure in US history
1975 New York City Bailout - $9.4 billion – NYC was overextended
1975 W DES - meant that commercial uses of high quality encryption would become common, and serious problems of export control began to arise.
1975 DES, Data Encryption Standard developed at IBM, seeking to develop secure electronic communications for banks and large financial organizations. DES was the first publicly accessible cipher to be 'blessed' by a national agency such as the NSA. Its release stimulated an explosion of public and academic interest in cryptography.
1975 Digital camera
1975 Altair 8800 sparks the microprocessor revolution
1976 Bretton Woods ratified (lasted 30 years) – by 80’s all nations were using floating currencies
1976 New Directions in Cryptography published by Diffie & Hellman – this terrified Fort Meade – previously this technique was classified, now it’s public
1976 Apple I Computer – Steve Wozniak
1976 Asymmetric key cryptosystem published by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman.
1976 Hellman and Diffie publish New Directions in Cryptography, introducing a radically new method of distributing cryptographic keys, contributing much to solving key distribution one of the fundamental problems of cryptography. It brought about the almost immediate public development of asymmetric key algorithms. - where people can have 2 sets of keys, public and private
1977 Diffie & Hellman receive letter from NSA employee JA Meyer that they’re violating Federal Laws comparable to arms export – this raises the question, “Can the gov prevent academics from publishing on crypto?
1977 DES considered insecure
1977 First handheld electronic game
1977 RSA public key encryption invented
1978 McEliece Cryptosystem invented, first asymmetric encryption algorithm to use randomization in the encryption process
1980s Large data centers began being built to store files and give users a better faster experience – companies rented space from them - Data centers would not only store data but scour it to show people what they might want to see and in some cases, sell data
1980s Reaganomics and Thatcherism
1980 A decade of intense bank failures begins; the FDIC reports that 1,600 were either closed or received financial assistance from 1980 to 1994
1980 Chrysler Bailout – lost over $1 billion due to major hubris on the part of its executives - $1.5 billion one of the largest payouts ever made to a single corporation.
1980 Protocols for public key cryptosystems – Ralph Merkle
1980 Flash memory invented – public in ‘84
1981 “Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses and Digital Pseudonumns” – Chaum
1981 EFTPOS, Electronic funds transfer at point of sale is created
1981 IBM Personal Computer
1982 “The Ethics of Liberty” Murray Rothbard
1982 Commodore 64
1982 CD
1983 Satellite TV
1983 First built in hard drive
1983 C++
1983 Stereolithography
1983 Blind signatures for untraceable payments
Mid 1980s Use of ATMs becomes more widespread
1984 Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust bailed out due to overly aggressive lending styles and - the bank’s downfall could be directly traced to risk taking and a lack of due diligence on the part of bank officers - $9.5 billion in 2008 money
1984 Macintosh Computer - the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse
1984 CD Rom
1985 Zero-Knowledge Proofs first proposed
1985 300,000 simultaneous telephone conversations over single optical fiber
1985 Elliptic Curve Cryptography
1987 ARPANET had connected over 20k guarded computers by this time
1988 First private networks email servers connected to NSFNET
1988 The Crypto Anarchists Manifesto – Timothy C May
1988 ISDN, Integrated Services Digital Network
1989 Savings & Loan Bailout - After the widespread failure of savings and loan institutions, President George H. W. Bush signed and Congress enacted the Financial Institutions Reform Recovery and Enforcement Act - This was a taxpayer bailout of about $200 billion
1989 First commercial emails sent
1989 Digicash - Chaum
1989 Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau built the prototype system which became the World Wide Web, WWW
1989 First ISPs – companies with no network of their own which connected people to a local network and to the internet - To connect to a network your computer placed a phone call through a modem which translated analog signals to digital signals – dial-up was used to connect computers as phone lines already had an extensive network across the U.S. – but phone lines weren’t designed for high pitched sounds that could change fast to transmit large amounts of data
1990s Cryptowars really heat up...
1990s Some countries started to change their laws to allow "truncation"
1990s Encryption export controls became a matter of public concern with the introduction of the personal computer. Phil Zimmermann's PGP cryptosystem and its distribution on the Internet in 1991 was the first major 'individual level' challenge to controls on export of cryptography. The growth of electronic commerce in the 1990s created additional pressure for reduced restrictions.[3] Shortly afterward, Netscape's SSL technology was widely adopted as a method for protecting credit card transactions using public key cryptography.
1990 NSFNET replaced Arpanet as backbone of the internet with more than 500k users
Early 90s Dial up provided through AOL and Compuserve
People were leery to use credit cards on the internet
1991 How to time-stamp a digital doc - Stornetta
1991 Phil Zimmermann releases the public key encryption program Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) along with its source code, which quickly appears on the Internet. He distributed a freeware version of PGP when he felt threatened by legislation then under consideration by the US Government that would require backdoors to be included in all cryptographic products developed within the US. Expanded the market to include anyone wanting to use cryptography on a personal computer (before only military, governments, large corporations)
1991 WWW (Tim Berners Lee) – made public in ‘93 – flatten the “tree” structure of the internet using hypertext – reason for HTTP//:WWW – LATER HTTPS for more security
1992 Erwise – first Internet Browser w a graphical Interface
1992 Congress passed a law allowing for commercial traffic on NSFNET
1992 Cpherpunks, Eric Hughes, Tim C May and John Gilmore – online privacy and safety from gov – cypherpunks write code so it can be spread and not shut down (in my earlier chapter)
1993 Mosaic – popularized surfing the web ‘til Netscape Navigator in ’94 – whose code was later used in Firefox
1993 A Cypherpunks Manifesto – Eric Hughes
1994 World’s first online cyberbank, First Virtual, opened for business
1994 Bluetooth
1994 First DVD player
1994 Stanford Federal Credit Union becomes the first financial institution to offer online internet banking services to all of its members in October 1994
1994 Internet only used by a few
1994 Cybercash
1994 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption protocol released by Netscape. Making financial transactions possible.
1994 One of the first online purchases was made, a Pizza Hut pepperoni pizza with mushrooms and extra cheese
1994 Cyphernomicon published – social implication where gov can’t do anything about it
1994-1999 Social Networking – GeoCities (combining creators and users) – had 19M users by ’99 – 3rd most popular after AOL and Yahoo – GeoCities purchased by Yahoo for $3.6B but took a hit after dotcom bubble popped and never recovered – GC shut down in ‘99
1995-2000 Dotcom bubble – Google, Amazon, Facebook: get over 600M visitors/year
1995 DVD
1995 MP3 term coined for MP3 files, the earlier development of which stretches back into the ‘70s, where MP files themselves where developed throughout the ‘90s
1995 NSFNET shut down and handed everything over to the ISPs
1995 NSA publishes the SHA1 hash algorithm as part of its Digital Signature Standard.
1996, 2000 President Bill Clinton signing the Executive order 13026 transferring the commercial encryption from the Munition List to the Commerce Control List. This order permitted the United States Department of Commerce to implement rules that greatly simplified the export of proprietary and open source software containing cryptography, which they did in 2000 - The successful cracking of DES likely helped gather both political and technical support for more advanced encryption in the hands of ordinary citizens - NSA considers AES strong enough to protect information classified at the Top Secret level
1996 e-gold
1997 WAP, Wireless Access Point
1997 NSA researchers published how to mint e cash
1997 Adam Back – HashCash – used PoW – coins could only be used once
1997 Nick Szabo – smart contracts “Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks”
1998 OSS, Open-source software Initiative Founded
1998 Wei Dai – B-money – decentralized database to record txs
1998 Bitgold
1998 First backdoor created by hackers from Cult of the Dead Cow
1998 Musk and Thiel founded PayPal
1998 Nick Szabo says crypto can protect land titles even if thugs take it by force – said it could be done with a timestamped database
1999 Much of the Glass-Steagal Act repealed - this saw US retail banks embark on big rounds of mergers and acquisitions and also engage in investment banking activities.
1999 Milton Friedman says, “I think that the Internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government. The one thing that's missing, but that will soon be developed, is a reliable e-cash - a method whereby on the Internet you can transfer funds from A to B without A knowing B or B knowing A.”
1999 European banks began offering mobile banking with the first smartphones
1999 The Financial Services Modernization Act Allows Banks to Grow Even Larger
Many economists and politicians have recognized that this legislation played a key part in the subprime mortgage crisis of 2007.
1999-2001 Napster, P2P file sharing – was one of the fastest growing businesses in history – bankrupt for paying musicians for copyright infringement

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[uncensored-r/btc] Bitcoin Is the World’s Hottest Currency, but No One’s Using It

The following post by cryptosystem is being replicated because some comments within the post(but not the post itself) have been openly removed.
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The original post's content was as follows:
https://www.wsj.com/articles/bitcoin-is-the-worlds-hottest-currency-but-no-ones-using-it-1512142187?mod=e2tw
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[uncensored-r/Bitcoin] klcchain

The following post by klcchain is being replicated because the post has been silently removed.
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1 Basic knowledge of cryptography 1.1 Basic knowledge of elliptic curves 1.1.1Elliptic curve profile Let denote a finite domain, an elliptic curve defined in it, actually this curve represented as a set of points, defines an operation on elliptic curve, and two points on the elliptic curve, a + = for the two point addition operation. The intersection of the line and the curve represented by the point, and the point on the elliptic curve of the symmetry. At this point, when = when, the intersection of the tangent and the curve is represented as the point on the axis of the elliptic curve. Thus, the Abel group is formed on the finite field (+ +), and the addition unit element is. 1.1.2 Signature algorithm Defines an elliptic curve called [()) and its base point, which is the order. For the curve @ (), make a public key pair, in which the private key is the public key and can be made public. Step1: first, using Hash function to calculate the plaintext message, the Hash function algorithm used MD5 algorithm or SHA-1 algorithm can calculate the plaintext message value = (Step2); then in the interval [1, and the private key a random integer as the signature of a range of 1]; Step3: calculation a public key =;Step4: = = K, where K is the abscissa of the public key and, if = 0, returns to Step2; Step5: = = Q/ (+), which is the private key of the sender A, and if = 0, returns to Step2; Step6: the sender A transmits the message signature (to) to the receiver B. The receiver receives the message signature (B,), the specific verification process to sign the message as follows: Step1: firstly, message signature and verification, i.e. whether it is in the interval [1, N1] positive integer range, if the signature does not comply with the signature of the message, that message signature received (,) is not a valid legal signature; Step2: according to the signature public key of the sender A, the sender A and the receiver B have the same Hash function digest value, and the digest value of the signed message is calculated (=); Step3: calculates the parameter value = Q/; Step4: calculates the parameter value = = Step5: calculates the parameter value = = Step6: calculates the parameter value = +; Step7: if = 0, the receiver B may deny the signature. Otherwise, calculate '= K', where K is the parameter A horizontal coordinate; a signature. The digital signature based on ECC, partly because this scheme can avoid the order operation in the inverse operation, so it is better than the signature scheme based on discrete logarithm algorithm should be simple; on the other hand it is because the calculation of the plaintext message () (,) than the calculation simple, so its speed Schnorr digital signature scheme is faster than. Therefore, the digital signature scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography has good application advantages in resisting attack security strength, key length, computation speed, computation cost and bandwidth requirement. 1.2 Threshold key sharing technology 1.2.1 Shamir Threshold key sharing concept Threshold key sharing technology solves the key security management problem. The design of modern cryptography system is that depends on the security of cryptosystem in the cryptographic key leakage means the lost security system, so the key management plays an important role in the research and design of security in cryptography. Especially when multiple stakeholders manage an account, the key of the account is trusted, and it is very difficult to distribute it safely to multi-party participants. To solve this problem, the Israeli cryptographer Shamir proposed Shamir (,) the concept of threshold secret sharing: the key is divided into portions assigned to participants, each participant to grasp a key share, only collect more than key share, can the key recovery. 1.2.2 Linear secret sharing mechanism Linear secret sharing is the generalization of Shamir threshold key sharing. Its essence is that both the primary key space, the sub key space and the random input set are linear spaces, and the key reconstruction function is linear. The formal definition is as follows: let be a finite domain, PI is a key access structure sharing system, is the main key space. We say that Pi is a linear key sharing system, if the following conditions are met: 1) sub key is linear space, namely for, constant B, the sub key space B cd. Remember - B, e (,) as the components of B CD vector space is received, this component is dependent on the primary key and the random number 2) each authorization set may obtain the master key by means of a linear combination of sub keys, that is, for any one delegate The right to set in, constant {b, e:, B, less than 1 and less than or equal to b}, such that for any master key and random number, All = KD and l /jejcd B, e, B (E, II). 1.2.3 Shamir Polynomial interpolation threshold secret sharing scheme Shamir combines the characteristics of polynomials over finite fields and the theory of Lagrange's reconstructed polynomial, designs a threshold key management scheme based on Lagrange interpolation polynomial, and the scheme is as follows 1.3 Secure multi-party computation 1.3.1 The background of secure multiparty computation With the rapid development of Internet, more and more applications require cooperative computing among network users. But because of privacy protection and data security considerations, the user does not want to participate in collaborative computing and other users to calculate data sharing, this problem leads to collaborative computing cannot be performed, which leads to efficient use and share some of the scenarios can not be difficult to achieve the cyber source. Secure multi-party computation (secure multi-party computation) makes this problem easy to solve, and it provides a theoretical basis for solving the contradiction between data privacy protection and collaborative computing. Secure multi-party computation is the theoretical foundation of distributed cryptography, and also a basic problem of distributed computing. Secure multi-party computation means that in a non trusted multi-user network, two or more users can cooperate with each other to execute a computing task without leaking their private input information. In brief, secure multi-party computation refers to a set of people, such as /...... Q, computing functions together safely,...... , q = (/),...... (Q). Where the input of this function is held by the participant secretly, the secret input of B is B, and after the calculation, B gets the output B. Here is the safety requirements of cheating participants even in some cases, to ensure the correctness of the calculated results, which is calculated after the end of each honest participant B can get the correct output of B, but also requires each participant to ensure confidentiality of input, namely each participant B (B, b) in addition. Don't get any other information. Secure multi-party computation has been rich in theoretical results and powerful tools. Although its practical application is still in its infancy, it will eventually become an indispensable part of computer security. 1.3.2 Classification of secure multiparty computation protocols At present, secure multi-party computation protocols can be divided into four categories according to the different implementations: L secure multi-party computation protocol based on VSS sub protocol Most of the existing secure multi-party computation protocols adopt verifiable key sharing VSS (Verifiable Secret) (Sharing) the sub protocol is the basis of protocol construction, which is suitable for computing functions on any finite field. The finite field of arbitrary function can be expressed as the domain definition of addition and multiplication of the directed graph, so long as can secure computing addition and multiplication, we can calculate each addition and multiplication to calculate any function over finite fields. L secure multi-party computation protocol based on Mix-Match The secure multi-party computation protocol based on VSS sub protocol can compute arbitrary functions, but it can not efficiently calculate Boolean functions. Therefore, another secure multi-party protocol called Mix-Match is proposed. The basic idea of this protocol is that participants use secret sharing schemes to share the system's private key, and the system's public key is open. During the protocol, the participants randomly encrypt their own input public key y, then publish their own encryption results, and finally make all participants gain common output through Mix-Match. L secure multi-party computation protocol based on OT OT based secure multi-party computation protocol for computing arbitrary bit functions. It implements with "OT sub Protocol" and (and), or (or) "," (not) "three basic operations, then the arbitrary bit operation function is decomposed into a combination of three basic operations, finally by using iterative method to calculate the bit operation function. L secure multi-party computation based on homomorphic encryption Homomorphic encryption, secure multi-party computation can resist active attacks based on it is the idea of the selected atom is calculated, the calculation can be decomposed into a sequence of atomic computing allows arbitrary function and atomic calculation of input and output using homomorphic encryption, to get the final results in the encrypted state, only a specific set of participants will be able to the calculation results decrypted plaintext. 1.4 Introduction to ring signature In 2001, Rivest et al proposed a new signature technique, called Ring Signature, in the context of how to reveal the secret anonymously. Ring si...
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Bitcoin Code Erfahrungen - Offizielle Video-Betrugs-Überprüfung Cryptosystem presentation PlatinCoin Bitcoin & Crypto - YouTube How to remove CryptoWall 3.0 virus (New version CryptoWall ... Bitcoin Cash is Bitcoin  How A P2P Cash System was Hijacked

CryptoWall virus removal instructions What is CryptoWall? The CryptoWall ransomware virus infiltrates users' operating systems via infected email messages and fake downloads (for example, rogue video players or fake Flash updates). After successful infiltration, this malicious program encrypts files stored on users' computers (*.doc, *.docx, *.xls, *.ppt, *.psd, *.pdf, *.eps, *.ai, *.cdr ... Comparisons of Bitcoin Cryptosystem with Other Common Internet Transaction Systems by AHP Technique . By Davor Maček and Dino Alagić. Abstract. This paper describes proposed methodology for evaluation of critical systems and prioritization of critical risks and assets identified in highly secured information systems. For different types of information assets or security environments it is ... Here developers of the Ransom.Cryptowall provide detailed information how and where to buy Bitcoin in order to send them to the provided Bitcoin wallet address. However, victims are warned that if they do not pay 500 USD/EUR until the given time, the size of the ransom will double up to 1000 USD/EUR. BitCoin miner virus or BitCoin mining virus is a dangerous malware that may use your CPU and/or GPU to obtain BitCoin cryptocurrency by mining illegally. Cryptocurrency miners keep hitting computers and trying to use their resources to generate revenue for their developers. Even though this type of infection is called BitCoinMiner, it does mine for digital currencies such as Monero ... Bitcoin virus removal guide. If you think that your computer is infected with malware, you should scan it with updated security software, such as Reimage Intego or Malwarebytes. If your device is affected, your chosen security tool will remove Bitcoin virus immediately. Make sure you check the system immediately after noticing changes in your computer’s speed because it is the only way to ...

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Bitcoin Code Erfahrungen - Offizielle Video-Betrugs-Überprüfung

On August 1st 2017, Bitcoin forked, creating Two New Blockchains: Bitcoin Core, and Bitcoin Cash. Only one has maintained the original vision laid out in Satoshi Nakamoto's white paper, as a peer ... “You can give a man a fish or give a man a bitcoin, but if you can teach him how to fish or teach him the understanding of economics behind money then you ha... CryptoWall3.0 removal guide. CryptoWall 3.0 (new version CryptoWall) is one of many ransomware trojans that encrypt the personal files on your computer and demand a bitcoin payment before you can ... Der Bitcoin Code handelt nichtmal mit verschlüsselten Währungen, sondern ist einfach ein Binäre Optionen-Autotrader. Bitte benutze ihn zu deiner eigenen Sicherheit nicht. Vergiss nicht diesem ... Watch Queue Queue. Watch Queue Queue. Remove all; Disconnect

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